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662 Aug 13
Maximus Confessor (b.c580), Greek theologian, died.
Links: Byzantium, Greece     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1415 Aug 13
King Henry V of England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on the French port of Harfleur.
Links: Britain, France     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1630 Aug 13
Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander.
Links: Bohemia, Czechoslovakia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1642 Aug 13
Christian Huygens discovered the Martian south polar cap.
Links:      Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1680 Aug 13
War started when the Spanish were expelled from Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Indians under Chief Pope.
Links: AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1704 Aug 13
The Battle of Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces.
Links: Austria     More  Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1826 Aug 13
Major Gordon Laing, Scottish explorer, became the 1st European to enter Timbuktu (Mali), where some 12,000 people lived. Laing was killed by a Tuareg nomad spear on Sep 26 as he headed for Morocco. In 2005 Frank T. Kryza authored “The Race for Timbuktu: In Search of Africa’s City of Gold.”
Links: Mali, Scotland, Explorer, Tuareg     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1833 Aug 13
The Bank of the US under Nicholas Biddle began to contract its loans.
Links: USA, Money, Banking     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1849 Aug 13
Hungary’s Gen. Gorgey surrendered to the Russian forces. Russia gave Hungary back to Austria.
Links: Austria, Russia, Hungary     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1863 Aug 13
Eugene Delacroix (b.1798), French artist, died.
Links: Artist, France     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1865 Aug 13
Ignaz Semmelweis (b.1818), Hungarian gynecologist, died from an infection in Vienna after being beaten up by warders in an asylum.
Links: Australia, Hungary, Medical     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1868 Aug 13
A magnitude 9.0 quake in Arica, Peru (later Chile), generated catastrophic tsunamis; more than 25,000 people were killed in South America.
Links: Chile, Peru, Earthquake     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1876 Aug 13
Richard Wagner's monumental epic, "Ring of the Nibelung" premiered with 4 operas on 4 consecutive nights) at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany. Wagner had begun writing the opera in 1848.
Links: Germany, Theater, Composer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1882 Aug 13
William Jevons (b.1835), English economist, drowned while bathing near Hastings. His book “The Theory of Political Economy” (1871) declared that value depends entirely upon utility.
Links: Britain, Economics     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1898 Aug 13
Sigmund Freud (42) signed into the Schweizerhaus, a Swiss Alps inn, with Minna Bernays (33), his wife’s sister, and registered her as his wife.
Links: Switzerland, Psychiatry     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1898 Aug 13
Manila, the capital of the Philippines, fell to the U.S. Army under Adm. George Dewey. It was later reported that Dewey had agreed to sacrifice the lives of American soldiers in order to give Spanish officers, who had retained dead soldiers on payroll, a chance to report heavy fatalities back to Spain.
Links: USA, Philippines     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1910 Aug 13
Florence Nightingale (90), British nurse famous for her care of British soldiers during the Crimean War, died. In 2004 Gillian Gill authored “Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale.” In 2008 Mark Bostridge authored Florence Nightingale: The Making of an Icon.”
Links: Britain, Women, Medical, Biography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1911 Aug 13
In San Francisco 10 members of the Industrial Workers of the World were arrested during a riot in North Beach. Speakers had been addressing a crowd denouncing all forms of government along with a tirade against the pope.
Links: USA, SF     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1913 Aug 13
Makarios III, [Michail Moeskos], archbishop, president Cyprus, was born.
Links: Cyprus     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1914 Aug 13
The British purchased 3 fast cross-channel packets: Empress, Riviera and Engadine. The ships were converted into seaplane tenders for reconnaissance.
Links: Britain, WWI     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1926 Aug 13
Fidel Castro, Cuban revolutionary leader, president, was born.
Links: Cuba     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1932 Aug 13
Adolf Hitler refused President Hindenburg’s offer to serve as Franz Von Papen's vice chancellor saying he was prepared to hold out "for all or nothing."
Links: Germany     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1937 Aug 13
Japanese attacked Shanghai.
Links: China     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1941 Aug 13
A prototype of the GEE or AMES Type 7000 British radio navigation system was lost on a raid over Hanover, Germany. GEE was devised by Robert Dippy and developed at the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) at Swanage. Dippy later went to the United States where he worked on the development of the LORAN system. Loran, long-range navigation, later fell out of favor with the development of satellite-based navigation systems.
Links: Britain, USA, Technology, Radio     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1943 Aug 13
Harold E. Stearns (b.1891), American journalist, died. His books included “Liberalism in America” (1919). He also edited the influential “Civilization in the United States An Inquiry by Thirty Americans” (1922), the book that inspired many dissatisfied young Americans to go abroad.
Links: USA, Journalism     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1944 Aug 13
In NYC Lucien Carr stabbed to death David Kammerer following sexual advances by Kammerer, who had been Carr's Boyscout Scoutmaster during his youth. Carr turned himself in and was later sentenced to 20 years, but served only 2 years in prison at Elmira Correctional Facility in upstate, NY. Lucien Carr later introduced Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs to each other.
Links: USA, NYC, Gays, Murder     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1946 Aug 13
Britain transferred illegal immigrants bound for Palestine to Cyprus.
Links: Cyprus     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1950 Aug 13
Pres. Truman gave military aid to the Vietnamese regime of Bao-Dai.
Links: Vietnam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1960 Aug 13
Central African Republic became independence from France and David Dacko was named 1st president.
Links: CAR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1960 Aug 13
The Soviet Union withdrew advisors, aid and other support from China.
Links: China     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1963 Aug 13
A 17 year-old Buddhist monk burned himself to death in Saigon, South Vietnam.
Links: Vietnam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1965 Aug 13
The Jefferson Airplane made its first public performance opening at the new Matrix club on Fillmore. The band held an ownership interest in the club.
Links: USA, SF, Pop&Rock     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1965 Aug 13
The Berkeley Barb, an underground weekly, debuted in Berkeley, Ca. The radical paper, founded by Max Scherr, continued for fifteen years.
Links: USA, SF Bay Area, Journalism     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1968 Aug 13
In Greece there was an assassination attempt against Col. George Papadopoulos (1919-1999), the right-wing military leader, organized by Alexandros Panagoulis (1939-1976), Greek politician and poet.
Links: Greece     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1971 Aug 13
Britain requested to exchange US dollars for gold. This prompted Pres. Nixon on August 15 to suspend such conversions.
Links: Britain, USA, Money     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1973 Aug 13
Pres. Nixon instituted general wage and price controls. Phase IV controls went into effect for the general economy and lasted until Economic Stabilization Program (ESP) expired on April 30, 1974.
Links: USA, Economics, NixonR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1978 Aug 13
In a Palestinian area of Beirut, Lebanon, a bomb killed 100 people.
Links: Palestine, Lebanon     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1979 Aug 13
1979 Aug 14
A force 9 gale off the southwest coast of Ireland left 15 yachtsmen of the 28th Fastnet Race dead.
Links: Ireland, Hurricane     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1981 Aug 13
In a ceremony at his California ranch, President Reagan signed a historic package of tax and budget reductions, also known as the Kemp-Roth tax cuts. Abstinence-only sex education programs were introduced under Pres. Reagan. Sponsors Rep. Jack Kemp and Sen. William Roth, had hoped for more significant tax cuts, but settled on this bill after a great debate in Congress. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981 included a rider known as the Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA), sponsored by Republican Senators Orrin Hatch (Utah) and Jeremiah Denton (Alabama). AFLA set aside a small but significant amount of federal money to be used for the promotion of abstinence, as well as religious instruction in sexual matters within the public schools. In the first four years following implementation of the tax reform act annual revenues were reduced by almost 2% of GDP.
Links: USA, Taxes, Sex, ReaganR, Education     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1986 Aug 13
In Texas Christine Morton was found beaten and killed in her Williamson County home. Her husband Michael Morton was convicted and spent 25 years in prison before being freed in 2011 after DNA evidence showed another man was responsible. On April 19, 2013, a judge ruled that former DA Ken Anderson had acted improperly and issued an arrest warrant on criminal contempt and tampering charges.
Links: USA, DNA, Texas     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1987 Aug 13
A rented Piper Cherokee airplane flew close to President Reagan's helicopter in restricted airspace over Southern California; the pilot and passenger of the plane were arrested.
Links: USA, California, Aviation, ReaganR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1987 Aug 13
On the fifth anniversary of a bull market, the Dow Jones industrial average closed at 2,691.49 after briefly surpassing 2,700.
Links: USA, DJIA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1988 Aug 13
Vice President George Bush contemplated a list of potential running mates as Republicans gathered in New Orleans for their party's national convention.
Links: USA, Louisiana, BushHW     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1989 Aug 13
Searchers in Ethiopia found the wreckage of a plane which had disappeared almost a week earlier while carrying Texas Congressman Mickey Leland and 15 other people. There were no survivors.
Links: USA, Ethiopia, Air Crash, Texas     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1989 Aug 13
The space shuttle Columbia returned from a secret military mission.
Links: NASA, Explorer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1989 Aug 13
Thirteen people were killed when their hot air balloon collided with another over the Australian outback near the town of Alice Springs. The two balloons were flying at an altitude of 600 meters when one plunged to the ground after the collision.
Links: Australia, Air Crash, Balloon     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990 Aug 13
President Bush ordered Defense Secretary Dick Cheney to the Persian Gulf for the second time since Iraq invaded Kuwait. American combat troops in Saudi Arabia, meanwhile, were told to prepare for a long stay.
Links: Iraq, USA, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, BushHW     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990 Aug 13
Alejandro Otero (b.1921), Venezuelan painter of Geometric abstraction, a sculptor, a writer and a cultural promoter, died in Caracas.
Links: Artist, Venezuela     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1991 Aug 13
VP Dan Quayle made a speech attacking lawyers.
Links: USA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1991 Aug 13
Clark Clifford resigned as chairman of First American Bankshares Incorporated, a bank holding company the government said had been illegally acquired by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International. Clifford and law partner Robert Altman were indicted in 1992 on charges of lying to regulators and receiving bribes from BCCI; Altman was acquitted at trial, and remaining charges against both men were dropped.
Links: USA, Corp. Scandal, Banking     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1991 Aug 13
Jack Ryan (b.1926), designer and inventor (Barbie Doll, Hot Wheels), died.
Links: USA, Toys, Inventor     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1992 Aug 13
"Real Inspector Hound" opened at Criterion in NYC for 61 performances.
Links: USA, NYC, Theater     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1992 Aug 13
President Bush announced that Secretary of State James A. Baker III was leaving his diplomatic post to be White House chief of staff in a shake-up designed to energize Bush's re-election campaign.
Links: USA, BushHW     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1992 Aug 13
Comedian, actor and director Woody Allen began legal action against actress Mia Farrow to win custody of their three children. A judge later ruled against Allen.
Links: USA, Filmstar     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1993 Aug 13
Negotiators for the US, Canada and Mexico announced they had resolved side issues concerning the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Links: Canada, USA, Mexico     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1993 Aug 13
US Court of Appeals ruled that congress must save all e-mails.
Links: USA, Internet     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1994 Aug 13
Elias Canetti (b.1905), Bulgarian-born German novelist, playwright and Nobel Prize winner (1981), died in Zurich. His books included “Auto-da-Fe” (1935) and “Crowds and Power” (1960) and a memoir trilogy. In 2005 an assembly of memoir manuscripts, collected after his death, was published as “Party in the Blitz.”
Links: Bulgaria, Germany, Nobel Prize, Writer, Playwright     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1994 Aug 13
In his weekly radio address, President Clinton put Congress on notice that he wouldn't give up an assault weapons ban as the price to revive a crime bill stalled on Capitol Hill.
Links: USA, Guns, ClintonB     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1994 Aug 13
NATO Secretary-General Manfred Woerner died at age 59.
Links: NATO     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1995 Aug 13
Baseball Hall of Famer Mickey Mantle died at a Dallas hospital of rapidly spreading liver cancer at the age of 63.
Links: USA, Baseball, Texas     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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