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10 Oct 13
Italy became the latest NATO ally to detail plans to scale down its military presence and hand over territory to Afghan security forces by the end of next year.
Links: Italy, NATO, Afghan     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1601 Oct 13
Tycho Brahe, astronomer, died in Prague.
Links: Bohemia, Czechoslovakia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1661 Oct 13
"I went to see Major General Harrison being drawn and quartered. He was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition." Harrison (b.1606) had sided with Parliament in the English Civil War. During the Interregnum he was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. In 1649 he signed the death warrant of Charles I and in 1660, shortly after the Restoration, he was found guilty of regicide.
Links: Britain, Mayhem     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1710 Oct 13
English troops occupied Acadia, Nova Scotia.
Links: Canada     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1775 Oct 13
The U.S. Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet. The Continental Congress authorized construction of two warships. The 1st ship in the US Navy was the schooner Hannah. It was commissioned by George Washington and outfitted at Beverly, Mass. In 2006 Ian W. Toll authored “Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy.
Links: USA, Massachusetts, WashingtonG     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1776 Oct 13
Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9 months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy.”
Links: Canada, Britain, USA, New York     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1812 Oct 13
At the Battle of Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeated the Americans who had tried to invade Canada. This was the 1st major land battle in the War of 1812.
Links: Canada     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1817 Oct 13
William Kirby, Canadian writer, was born.
Links: Canada     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1822 Oct 13
Antonio Canova (b.1757), Italian sculptor, died at age 64. His work included a sculpture of Napoleon’s sister Pauline, as a semi-naked Venus Victrix.
Links: Artist, Italy, France     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1884 Oct 13
Greenwich was established as the universal time meridian of longitude. 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, D.C. for the International Meridian Conference. This conference selected the Greenwich Meridian as the official Prime Meridian due to its popularity. However, France abstained from the vote and French maps continued to use the Paris Meridian for several decades.
Links: Britain, USA, France, DC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1905 Oct 13
Henry Irving (b.1838), British actor, died in England. In 2008 Michael Holroyd authored “A Strange Eventful History: The Dramatic Lives of Ellen Terry, Henry Irving and Their Remarkable Families.” Irving was the first actor to be awarded a British knighthood (1895).
Links: Britain, Theater, Biography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1908 Oct 13
Some 60 thousand British suffragists led by Emmeline Pankhurst, founder of the WSPU, gathered in Parliament Square the rush the House of Commons. 24 women and 13 men were arrested.
Links: Britain, Women     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1920 Oct 13
Laraine Day (d.2007), film actress, was born in Roosevelt, Utah. Her work included over 4 dozen films from the late 1930s to 1960.
Links: USA, Utah, Filmstar     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1921 Oct 13
In the Treaty of Kars Turkey formally recognized the Armenian Soviet Republic.
Links: Armenia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1921 Oct 13
The Daily Colonist in Victoria BC mentioned the term "cold turkey" in reference to quitting an addiction. This was the first know use of the term in print.
Links: Canada     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1930 Oct 13
Shafik Handal, later head of the Salvadoran left, was born to immigrant Palestinian parents from Bethlehem in the city of Usulutan, El Salvador.
Links: El Salvador, Palestine     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1945 Oct 13
Milton Hershey (b.1857), Philadelphia chocolate tycoon, died. In 2005 Michael D. Antonio authored “Hershey: Milton S. Hershey’s Extraordinary Life of Wealth, Empire and Utopian Dreams.”
Links: USA, Pennsylvania, Food, Biography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1947 Oct 13
The popular children's television show, Kukla, Fran and Ollie, premiered as a local Chicago show. In its first year, the show's name varied between "Kukla, Fran and Ollie" and "Junior Jamboree," but it was essentially the same show.
Links: USA, Chicago, TV, Kids     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1949 Oct 13
India’s PM Nehru, on his first visit to America, met with Pres. Truman and addressed the US House and Senate in two identical speeches.
Links: USA, India, TrumanH     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1955 Oct 13
A US Air Force B-47B crashed while taking off from March Air Base in California. Capt. Edward A. O'Brien Jr. (Pilot), Capt. David J. Clare (co-pilot), Major Thomas F. Mulligan (navigator), and Capt. Joseph M. Graeber (chaplain) were all killed.
Links: USA, California, Air Crash     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1960 Oct 13
Opponents of Fidel Castro were executed in Cuba.
Links: Cuba     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1966 Oct 13
173 US airplanes bombed North-Vietnam.
Links: Vietnam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969 Oct 13
1969 Oct 25
Pres. Nixon ordered a worldwide "secret" nuclear alert to scare the Soviets into forcing concessions from North Vietnam. Nixon called that tactic a "madman strategy," and it did not work.
Links: Russia, USA, USSR, Nuclear, NixonR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1970 Oct 13
Canada established diplomatic relations with China.
Links: Canada, China     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1972 Oct 13
Aeroflot Il-62 crashed in large pond outside Moscow and 176 died.
Links: Russia, Air Crash, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1972 Oct 13
A Uruguay to Chile Fairchild FH-227 turboprop carrying 45 people crashed in the Andes Mountains. The event was concluded by December 23, 1972 when the last of 16 survivors were rescued. The group survived by collectively making a decision to eat flesh from the bodies of their dead comrades. The book “Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors,” published two years after their rescue, was written by Piers Paul Read, who interviewed the survivors and their families.
Links: Chile, Air Crash, Uruguay     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1974 Oct 13
Ed Sullivan (72), longtime television, host died in New York City.
Links: USA, NYC, TV     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1975 Oct 13
The Maharishi Yogi (1917-2008), India-born founder of Transcendental Meditation, appeared on the cover of Time Magazine.
Links: USA, India, Magazine     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1977 Oct 13
A Lufthansa Boeing 737, bound for Frankfurt, was hijacked by Palestinians shortly after take-off. The plane is diverted to Rome's Fiumicino Airport. Almost all of the passengers are German vacationers. "This is Captain Martyr Mohammed speaking," announces one of the hijackers to the Rome air-traffic controllers. "The group I represent demands the release of our comrades in German prisons [see Oct 18].
Links: Germany, Palestine, Aviation, Hijacking, Terrorism     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1980 Oct 13
In Houston, Texas, a delicatessen clerk was shot and killed by one bullet during a robbery. Willie Williams, who admitted to firing the fatal shot, was executed in 1995. His accomplice, Joseph Nichols, was convicted in 1982 at age 20 and in 2007 was also executed for the murder.
Links: USA, Murder, Texas     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1980 Oct 13
In northern California Anne Evelyn Alderson (26) of San Rafael was raped and shot to death on Mount Tamalpais. David Joseph Carpenter was arrested in May 1981. In 1984 he was convicted of 2 murders in Santa Cruz and sentenced to death. In 1988 he was convicted of 4 killings in Marin County and again sentenced to death.
Links: Murder, SF Bay Area, Rape     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1981 Oct 13
Voters in Egypt elected Vice President Hosni Mubarak the new president in a referendum with a 98.5% vote, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat.
Links: Egypt     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1982 Oct 13
The IOC restored 2 gold medals post mortem from the 1912 Olympics to Jim Thorpe (1888-1953).
Links: USA, Olympics, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1982 Oct 13
Guatemala’s army surrounded the mountain village of Santa Anita Las Canoas. 24 men were taken inside a church, where they were chained, tied with ropes and tortured all the night, their screams heard throughout the village. The following morning, 6 men were taken from the group, tied to the barbwire fence of the church and executed in front of the community.
Links: Guatemala, Atrocities     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1983 Oct 13
The Space Shuttle Challenger, carrying seven, the largest crew to date, landed safely at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Links: USA, NASA, Florida     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1987 Oct 13
Costa Rican President Oscar Arias was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts on behalf of a Central American peace plan to end the war in Nicaragua.
Links: Costa Rica, Nobel Prize     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1988 Oct 13
Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was named recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Links: Nobel Prize, Egypt, Writer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1988 Oct 13
Vice President George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis met in their second presidential debate of the 1988 campaign.
Links: USA, BushHW     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1988 Oct 13
Absa Claude Diallo, Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, addressed a letter to the UN Sec.-Gen. concerning profound concern at the “continued grave situation in the occupied Palestinian territories and the intensification of the policy of repression pursued by Israel against the Palestinian people.”
Links: Israel     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1988 Oct 13
In Italy Cardinal Archbishop Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero was forced to announce that the Shroud of Turin did not contain the image of Christ. Scientists at 3 leading universities carbon-dated samples to some time between 1260-1390. In 1998 it was reported that the dating work was not definitive. Lab tests showed Shroud of Turin was not Christ’s burial cloth. The Shroud of Turin Research Project (Sturp) performed radiocarbon dating on fibers of the shroud and found that the linen dated to between 1260 and 1390 AD. Ian Wilson wrote the 1978 book "The Shroud of Turin" and in 1998 "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence That the Most Sacred Relic Is Real."
Links: Italy, Religion     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1989 Oct 13
The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 190 points, triggering memories of the 1987 crash.
Links: Money, DJIA, Economics     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990 Oct 13
At the start of a three-day conference in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, the crown prince of Kuwait promised greater democracy for the emirate if it were freed from Iraqi occupation.
Links: Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990 Oct 13
In Lebanon, rebel Christian General Michel Aoun ended his mutiny against the government. Syrian forces defeated the army under Aoun. Jihad Georges Eid (20) a soldier in the Lebanese army, was taken from Lebanon by Syrian troops on the day of the last battle in the civil war. For the next 20 plus years, more than 600 families, Lebanese and Palestinian, Muslim and Christian, demanded authorities reveal the fate of thousands of political prisoners believed to have disappeared at the hands of Syrian troops.
Links: Syria, Lebanon     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990 Oct 13
The 1st Russian Orthodox service in 70 yrs was held in St. Basil's Cathedral.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990 Oct 13
Le Duc Tho, co-founder of the Vietnamese Communist Party, died in Hanoi at age 79. He was the 1975 North Vietnamese negotiator in Paris.
Links: Vietnam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1991 Oct 13
The Minnesota Twins won the American League pennant, defeating the Toronto Blue Jays 8-5 at SkyDome.
Links: Canada, USA, Minnesota, Baseball     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1991 Oct 13
The US Senate Judiciary Committee heard conflicting testimony from friends and associates of Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill, the University of Oklahoma law professor who'd accused Thomas of sexually harassing her.
Links: USA, Sex, Oklahoma, Supreme Court     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1992 Oct 13
Vice President Dan Quayle, Senator Al Gore and retired admiral James B. Stockdale clashed in a freewheeling vice-presidential debate in Atlanta.
Links: GeorgiaUS, USA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1993 Oct 13
The Philadelphia Phillies won the National League pennant, defeating the Atlanta Braves in game six.
Links: GeorgiaUS, USA, Pennsylvania, Baseball     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1993 Oct 13
The U.N. Security Council voted to reimpose sanctions on Haiti unless military leaders there stopped violating a U.N.-brokered accord.
Links: Haiti, UN     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1994 Oct 13
Kenzabuto Oe, Japanese novelist, won the Nobel prize for literature. His work included "A Personal Matter" (1964) and "An Echo of Heaven."

Links: Japan, Nobel Prize, Writer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1994 Oct 13
Pro-British Protestant paramilitaries in Northern Ireland announced a cease-fire matching the Irish Republican Army's six-week-old truce.
Links: Northern Ireland     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1994 Oct 13
In Sri Lanka peace talks began in Jaffna.
Links: Sri Lanka     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1995 Oct 13
The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Polish-born British physicist Joseph Rotblat (1908-2005) and the Pugwash Conferences (begun in Canada in 1957) for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics.
Links: Nobel Prize, Nuclear     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1995 Oct 13
The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Polish-born British physicist Joseph Rotblat (1909-2005) and the Pugwash Conferences (begun in Canada in 1957) for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics.
Links: Canada, Britain, Poland, Nobel Prize     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1996 Oct 13
In Austria the far-right Freedom party of Joerg Haider received 27.6% of the vote. The Conservative People’s Party led by Foreign Minister Wolfgang Schuessel won with 29.6%, while the Social Democrats got 29.1%.
Links: Austria     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1996 Oct 13
The Yankees won the American League pennant, defeating the Baltimore Orioles.
Links: NYC, Baseball     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1996 Oct 13
House Speaker Newt Gingrich, appearing on CBS' "Face the Nation," called on Congress to investigate campaign contributions made to President Clinton's re-election campaign by the Lippo Group, an Indonesian banking conglomerate.
Links: USA, ClintonB     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1996 Oct 13
In Iraq the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) regained Sulaymaniyah, its former headquarters.
Links: Iraq     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1997 Oct 13
In Quebec a bus with 48 senior citizens overturned near St. Joseph-de-la-Rive and 43 were killed.
Links: Canada     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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