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500
600
The monastic complex of David Gareja was founded in the 6th century by David (St. David Garejeli), one of the thirteen Assyrian monks who arrived in Georgia at the same time. His disciples Dodo and Luciane expanded the original lavra and founded two other monasteries known as Dodo's Rka (literally, "the horn of Dodo") and Natlismtsemeli ("the Baptist"). Part of the complex is also located in the Agstafa rayon of Azerbaijan and thus became subject to a border dispute between Georgian and Azerbaijani authorities.
Links: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Assyria     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
632
661
The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
Links: Azerbaijan, Qatar, Armenia, Iraq, Turkey, UAE, Pakistan, Cyprus, Libya, Iran, Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Sudan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Afghan, Tunisia, Islam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
700
900
The Hadith, the main guide for Muslims in interpreting the Koran, were evaluated and gathered into large collections mostly during the reign of Umar ibn AbdulAziz during the 8th and 9th centuries.
Links: Azerbaijan, Qatar, Armenia, Iraq, Turkey, UAE, Pakistan, Cyprus, Libya, Iran, Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Sudan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Afghan, Tunisia, Islam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
730
Khazar commander Barjik led Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeated an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.
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1000
Turkic-speaking people wrote in Runic, the official script.
Links: Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1274
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (b.1177), born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (then part of Iran), died in Sindh (later part of Pakistan). He had migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He was a Shia Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Links: Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Sufi     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1900
At the turn of the century 51% of the world’s oil came from Azerbaijan.
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1918 May 28
Tatars declared Azerbaijan, in Russian Caucasus, independent.
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1920 Apr 28
Azerbaijan joined the USSR. The Red Army invaded Azerbaijan and turned the country into a Soviet Republic.
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1921
The borders of the region were gerrymandered when the Caucasus territories were made part of the Soviet Union. This made the area of Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous enclave of mostly Armenians surrounded by Azerbaijan dependent on Moscow.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1923 May 10
Geidar Aliev (Heydar Aliyev, d.2003), later KGB general, Communist Party chief and Azerbaijan president, was born in Nakhichevan.
Links: Azerbaijan     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1926
In Azerbaijan the region’s 1st Turkology Congress convened in Baku to discuss the alphabet issue. They chose the Latin alphabet for all Turkic-speaking peoples by a 101-7 vote.
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1927 Mar 27
Mstislav Leopold Rostropovich, cellist, conductor, was born in Baku, Azerbaijan, USSR.
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1936 Dec 5
Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR & Kirghiz SSR became constituent republics of Soviet Union.
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1961 Dec 24
Ilham Geidar oglu Aliev, appointed PM in 2003, was born.
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1975
The Bakkonditzioner air-conditioning manufacturer opened in Baku, Azerbaijan, USSR.
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1985 Nov 9
Gary Kasparov became the world chess champion. He was born in 1963 in Azerbaijan to an Armenian mother and a Jewish father. Anatoly Karpov had held the world chess title for 10 years until he was defeated this year by Kasparov.
Links: Azerbaijan, Russia, USSR, Chess     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1987
Aliyev resigned from the Soviet Politburo government.
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1987
In Azerbaijan Pres. Aliyev resigned from the Soviet Politburo government.
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1988 Feb 28
Ethnic unrest broke out between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in the city of Sumgait. There was an anti-Armenian pogrom in the town of Sumgait. A national awakening occurred in Azerbaijan when conflict erupted over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, included by the Soviets in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1988 May 21
The Soviet news agency Tass reported that the Communist Party leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan had been dismissed after fresh outbreaks of ethnic tensions in the two southern Soviet republics.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1988 Jul 7
The European Parliament adopted a resolution condemning brutalities against Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh.
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1988 Jul 14
The Soviet press agency Tass reported that Azerbaijan has rejected an attempt by Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly Armenian enclave, to secede and join Armenia. Some 200,000 demonstrated in Soviet Armenia for the incorporation of Nagorno-Karabakh.
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1988 Nov 24
A state of emergency was declared in the cities of Kirovabad and Nakhichevan.
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1988
A national awakening occurred in Azerbaijan when conflict erupted over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, included by the Soviets in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1988
The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence. Arme-nia’s conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region erupted.
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1990 Jan 15
Soviet leader Gorbachev and the Soviet Presidium declared a state of emergency in parts of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the wake of escalating ethnic violence.
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1990 Jan 16
The Soviet Union sent more than 11,000 reinforcements to the Caucasus to halt a civil war between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.
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1990 Jan 20
The Soviets attacked Baku, leaving dozens dead and wounded.
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1990 Jan 21
Azerbaijan Pres. Aliyev made his first public appearance since his 1987 resignation from the Soviet Politburo. He broke the information blackout and urged int’l. condemnation of the Soviet attack. Mutinous military cadets fired on troops patrolling the capital during a crackdown on a nationalist uprising.
Links: Azerbaijan, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1990 Jan 22
Up to 2 million Azerbaijanis marched through the republic's capital to mourn those killed when Soviet troops put down a nationalist revolt.
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1990 Jan
Azerbaijani attacks on Armenians triggered a Soviet army occupation of the Azerbaijani capital.
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1991 Aug 30
Azerbaijan declared its independence, joining the stampede of republics seek-ing to secede from the Soviet Union.
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1991 Sep 21
Armenia gained independence and was immediately involved in a territorial dispute with Azerbaijan over the Nagorny Karabakh region.

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1991 Dec 21
Eleven of the 12 former Soviet republics proclaimed the birth of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the death of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Links: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Tajikistan, USSR, Turkmenistan, Moldova, CIS     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1991 Dec
in Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov was elected Communist Party boss and led the Caspian Sea nation as it gained independence in the Soviet collapse. He was ousted from office a few months later and fled to Russia.
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1991
On the dissolution of the USSR, Azerbaijan gained its independence.
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1991
Sex selective abortions began increasing in the Caucasus region as ultrasound equipment became available from the West. By 2013 over 115 boys were born in Armenia and Azerbaijan for every 100 girls. In Georgia the ration was 120 to 100.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Sex     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1992 Feb 11
Secretary of State James A. Baker III, on a tour of six former Soviet republics, visited Armenia, where he heard an appeal from the republic's president for U.S. help in resolv-ing a bloody feud with neighboring Azerbaijan.
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1992 Feb 11
US Secretary of State James A. Baker III, on a tour of six former Soviet republics, visited Armenia, where he heard an appeal from the republic's president for U.S. help in resolving a bloody feud with neighboring Azerbaijan.
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1992 Feb 14
The former Soviet republics of Ukraine, Moldova and Azerbaijan rejected a proposal for a unified army, sharply rebuffing Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin.
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1992 Feb 26
According to Azerbaijani authorities 613 Azerbaijanis were killed when Armenian troops rushed into the village of Khodzhaly.
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1992
In Azerbaijan Abulfez Elchibey, a pro-Turkish nationalist, came to power. Ayaz Mutalibov was deposed amid economic turmoil and losses in a war with Armenia.
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1992
The Azerbaijanis under a new nationalist government tried to reconquer Nagorno-Karabakh, but were soon repulsed.
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1992
Azerbaijan adopted a 34-character Latin alphabet based on Turkey’s script to replace the Russian style Cyrillic.
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1993 Jun 15
Former Communist party chief Geidar Aliyev (1923-2003) became head of parliament.
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1993 Jun 15
In Azerbaijan former Communist party chief Geidar Aliyev (1923-2003) became head of parliament. A fifth of Azerbaijan was controlled by Armenian insurgents when Abulfaz Elchibey was ousted from the presidency and replaced by former Communist party chief Geidar Aliyev. Under Aliyev Azerbaijan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in Sept.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, CIS     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1993 Sep
Azerbaijan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States.
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1993 Oct
Geidar Aliyev was elected president of Azerbaijan with 98.9% of the official vote. The main opposition Popular Front party boycotted the vote.
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1994 May
A cease-fire was declared between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan Pres. Geidar Aliyev negotiated a cease-fire with Armenian forces in the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. More than 35,000 people had died in 6 years of fighting.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1994
British Petroleum (BP) acquired a 34% stake in the the “Azeri, Chirag and Deepwater Gunashli” (ACG) oil project, a deal that became known as the contract of the century. This relaunched Baku, Azerbaijan, as a major oil town.
Links: Azerbaijan, Britain, Oil     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1995 Oct
A subway train fire killed 300 and injured 270 in the capital, Baku.
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1995
Ayaz Mutalibov allegedly orchestrated a failed coup attempt.
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1996 Nov 26
Separatists in Nagorno-Karabakh elected their first president, Robert Kocharian, despite opposition from Azerbaijan.
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1996 Dec
The Lisbon Summit of Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe chose Azerbaijan’s argument for territorial integrity over Armenia’s argument for self-determination in Nagorno-Karabakh.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Spain, OSCE     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1996
Elmar Huseinov founded the Monitor Magazine to expose the abuses of the regime of Pres. Heydar Aliyev.
Links: Azerbaijan, Magazine     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1997 Sep 2
Ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh elected Arkady Gukasian as president with an 89% vote. Azerbaijan called the vote invalid.
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1997 Oct 2
A helicopter with 20 passengers crashed near an offshore oil platform and no survivors were found.
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1997 Oct 2
In Azerbaijan a helicopter with 20 passengers crashed near an offshore oil platform and no survivors were found.
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1997
Ayaz Mutalibov allegedly orchestrated another failed coup attempt.
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