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4000 BC
In 2011 it was reported that the earliest known winery, dating to about this time, had been discovered in Armenia.
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3627 BC
3377 BC
In Armenia a leather shoe dating to this period was found in 2010 in a pit outside a cave.
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782 BC
Urartian king Argishti the First founded Erebuni, the military and administrative center of the state of Urartu, situated in the location of present-day Yerevan, Armenia.
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700 BC
600 BC
A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
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700 BC
600 BC
The Armenians, an Indo-European people, migrate from the west to mingle with the people of URARTU. It was ruled by kings of the Orontid dynasty as a satrapy of the Persian empire until the defeat of Persia by Alexander the Great.
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521 BC
The name Armenian was mentioned for the first time in the Behistan (Behistun) inscription of the Mede (Persian) Emperor Darius from this year: "I defeated the Armenians."
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94 BC
56 BC
Tigranes (Dikran) the Great, a scion of the Eastern Dynasty, ruled. He welded the two Armenian satrapies into one kingdom, and so created the first strong native sovereignty that the country had known since the fall of Urartu five centuries before.
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52
Trdat I received his crown from the Roman emperor Nero and began the Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy.
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286
336
King Trdat III ruled Armenia.
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301
King Trdat III declared Christianity to be the state religion. Armenia became the first country to adopt Christianity. Not long after the Armenians adopted Christianity in their homeland around the biblical Mt. Ararat, on the eastern border of modern-day Turkey, they dispatched priests to Jerusalem.
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387
The Parthians and Romans agreed to settle the Armenian question by the drastic expedient of partition. The Sassanid kings of Persia (who had superseded the Parthians in the Empire of Iran) secured the lion's share of the spoils, while the Romans only received a strip of country on the western border which gave them Erzeroum and Diyarbakir for their frontier fortresses.
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405
The Armenian alphabet was invented.
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410
The Bible was translated into Armenian. [see 422-432]
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422
432
The Bible and the works of the church fathers were translated into Armenian. [see 410]
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428
The Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy of Armenia ended and control fell to the rule of the Persian Sassanids.
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438
457
The Persian King Yazdegird II ruled. He pressured the Armenians to accept Zoroastrianism and worship the supreme god Ahura Mazda. Mihr-Nerseh, the Persian grand vizier, promulgated an edict that enjoined the Armenians to convert.
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449
The Armenians held a General Assembly to ponder the Persian edict that demanded conversion to Zoroastrianism. They chose to remain Christian and their leaders were summoned to Persia to answer to the king. The leaders opted to yield under heavy pressure but were renounced on their return home.
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451 Apr 13
A Persian Army of 300,000 men under Mushkan Nusalavurd arrived at a place between her and Zarevand (now Khoy and Salmast in Iran) to face the Armenian forces.
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451 May 26
The Battle of Avarair. Vardan Mamikonian, son of Sparapet (general) Hamazasp Mamikonian and Sahakanush, daughter of the Catholicos Sahak Bartev, led a force of 66,000 Armenians to face the Persians. Prior to battle Vardan read aloud the story of the Jewish Maccabees. Persian losses tripled the Armenian dead, but Mushkan won and Vardan was killed.
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451
The Armenians were the first Christians to take up arms in defending their right to worship.
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451
484
Vahan Mamikonian led the Armenians in a 33-year guerrilla war. The Persian Sassanids underwent 3 rulers and pressure from the Ephthalites, White Huns, and when King Peroz was killed by the White Huns, his successor, Balash, sued for peace. Vahan demanded and was granted religious freedom.
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478
490
The Catholicos Hovhan I Mandakuni.
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484
A treaty was signed in the village of Nuwarsak with the Persians and Vahan Mamikonian was appointed marzban of Armenia.
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485
505
Vahan Mamikonian began his rule with services at the Cathedral of Dvin with the Catholicos Hovhan I Mandakuni presiding.
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552 Jul 10
Origin of Armenian calendar.
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628 Apr 3
In Persia, Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
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632
661
The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
Links: Azerbaijan, Qatar, UAR, Armenia, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, Cyprus, Libya, Iran, Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Sudan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Afghan, Tunisia, Islam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
683
685
Khazars invaded Transcaucasia and inflicted much damage and stole much booty. The Khazar invaders killed the rulers of Armenia and Georgia.
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700
900
The Hadith, the main guide for Muslims in interpreting the Koran, were evaluated and gathered into large collections mostly during the reign of Umar ibn AbdulAziz during the 8th and 9th centuries.
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730
Khazar commander Barjik led Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeated an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.
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820 Dec 25
Leo V, the Armenian, Byzantine gen and Emperor (813-20), was murdered.
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820 Dec 25
Leo V, the Armenian, Byzantine gen. and Emperor (813-20), was murdered.
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895
The Tatev Monastery was built near the village of Tatev, Armenia. The construction on the Church of Peter and Paul was completed in 906.
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921
In Turkey the Armenian Akdamar church, called the Church of Surp Khach, or Holy Cross, was inaugurated. Written records say the church was near a harbor and a palace on the island on Lake Van, but only the church survived. Turkey restored the church in 2007.
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961
Ani became the capital of Armenia. At its height it had over 100,000 inhabitants. Within a century it began falling victim to waves of conquerors including Seljuk Turks, Georgians and Mongols.
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989
1020
Ani, a medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia, attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989-1020). It was the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD.
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1198
Fleeing from the Turks, a group of Armenian nobles and their followers settled in Byzantine Cilicia where they established a state know as Lesser or Little Armenia. In this year the area attained the status of kingdom and survived to 1375.
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1319
Ani, capital of Armenia, was devastated by an earthquake.
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1350
Sargis Pitsak, Armenian artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible. Color picture "Souls Ascending the Heavenly Ladder to Christ," featured in:
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1720
Handel composed his opera "Radamisto." It dealt with the tyrant Tiridate, King of Armenia, and his insatiable pursuit of a woman who is not his wife.
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1757
The Greek Orthodox clergy wrested control of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Ottoman rulers declared a status quo for the holy sties of the city and control of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was split primarily among the Latin, Greek and Armenian patriarchates of Jerusalem and secondarily among the churches of Egypt, Syria and Ethiopia. This arrangement was formalized in 1852.
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1828
Russia conquered the Armenian provinces of Persia, and this brought within her frontier the Monastery of Etchmiadzin, in the Khanate of Erivan, which was the seat of the Katholikos of All the Armenians.
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1868
Tigran Tcukhatjian (Tchukhadjian) composed "Arshak II," a pseudo-European grand opera.
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1869
1955
Calouste Gulbenkian, Armenian oil merchant. By 1907 he combined Royal Dutch Oil and Shell Oil and emerged with a large block of stock in the combined company. He later brokered all the oil sold in Iran to the West for a 5% commission and earned the nickname Mr. Five percent. He collected old master paintings, Turkish carpets, illuminated manuscripts and left a fortune valued at $1 billion.
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1877 Nov 17
Russians launched a surprise night attack that overran Turkish forces at Kars, Armenia.
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1887
The Marxist Hunchakian Revolutionary Party, called the Hunchaks, was founded in Geneva, Switzerland by Armenians from Russia.
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1890
The Marxist Armenian Revolutionary Federation, called the Dashnaks, was founded in the Russian Empire, in Tiflis (Georgia).
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1894 Nov 16
6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
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1894
1896
Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the "Armenian Question."
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1904 Apr 15
Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
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1909
The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire. A religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in Adana Province resulted in 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.
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1912
Arshile Gorky’s 1926 painting, "The Artist and His Mother," was based on a photograph taken in Armenia in 1912, not long before his mother died of starvation. The work took ten years to complete.
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1914
Fall, Armenian volunteer bands organized themselves and fought against the Turks. "The Protestant missionaries distributed... propaganda in favor of England and stirred the Armenians to desire autonomy under British protection."
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1915 Apr 11
The Armenians of Van began a general revolt, massacring all the Turks in the vicinity so as to make possible its quick and easy conquest by the Russians.
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1915 Apr 20
The Turks fired the first shot at Van; the first Armenians were deported from Zeitoun on the 8th April, and there is a record of their arrival in Syria as early as the l9th.
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1915 Apr 24
1915 May 14
Turkey said Armenians had sided with Russia and issued a deportation order for the mass deportation of Armenians. Armenian organizations in Istanbul were closed and 235 members were arrested for treason. Turkish police arrested some 800 of the most prominent Armenians in Constantinople, took them into the hinterlands and shot them. With that the terror spread through "Turkish Armenia" spearheaded by the "Special Organization" of soldiers of the Turkish leader Enver. In 2006 Taner Akcam authored “A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility.”
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1915 May 12
Croatians plundered Armenia and killed 250.
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1915 Jun 1
A forced exodus [of Armenians] from Baibourt [Turkey] took place. All the villages, as well as three-fourths of the town, had already been evacuated. A 3rd convoy included from 4,000 to 5,000 people. Within six or seven days from the start, all males down to below fifteen years of age had been murdered.
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1915 Nov 6
An order from Constantinople reached the local authorities, at any rate in the Cilician plain, directing them to refrain from further [Armenian] deportations.
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1915
In 2003 Peter Balakian, Prof. at Colgate Univ., authored "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response," a one-sided account of the 1915 Armenian genocide and the Turkish massacres of Armenians in the 1890s.
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