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Babylon

3500 BC
Sumerians and Babylonians use sexigesimal (base 60) number system according to historian Eric Temple Bell.
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3500 BC
2400 BC
The Tower of Babel was built during this period by people of one language who inhabited the land of Shinar in the kingdom of Nimrod.
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3500 BC
King Etena of Babylonia was pictured on a coin, flying on an eagle’s back.
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2750 BC
Gilgamesh, a Sumerian King, ruled the city of Uruk (Babylonia) about this time, which had grown to a population of over 50,000. Gilgamesh was the subject of many epics, including the Sumerian "Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the Nether World" and the Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh." In 1844 Westerners discovered an epic poem based on Gilgamesh on stone fragments in Mosul, Iraq. In 1853 clay tablets inscribed with the tale were found in Nineveh, the former capital of Assyria. 5 Sumerian versions were later acknowledged. George Smith completed his translation of the Epic in 1874. In 2004 Stephen Mitchell published “Gilgamesh: A New English Translation.” Derek Hines authored “Gilgamesh.”
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2700 BC
The Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, ruled the city of Uruk (Babylonia) which had grown to a population of over 50,000.
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2400 BC
Dagan, a name that appears in early Mesopotamia, and that enters into the composition of proper names in Babylonia about this time. Dagan was later a name for head of the Philistine pantheon.
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2145 BC
Idin-Dagan, a king of Babylonia. and his son Isme-Dagan.
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2000 BC
1600 BC
In Mesopotamia the Old Babylonian period began after the collapse of Sumer, probably due to an increase in the salt content of the soil that made farming difficult.
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1900 BC
The “Epic of Gilgamesh” was redacted from Sumerian sources and written in the Babylonian semetic.
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1800 BC
By this time the Old Babylonians employed advanced mathematical operations such as multiplication, division and square roots. Their duodecimal system, based on 12 and 6 to measure time, is still used today.
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1792 BC
1750 BC
Hammurabi, king of Babylon, established a code of laws during this period that became known as the Code of Hammurabi. They were inscribed on a basalt column, later found at Susa, Iran. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
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1763 BC
Hammurabi, the Amorite King, conquered all of Sumer. He wrote a “Code of Laws” that contained 282 rules including the principles of “an eye for an eye” and “let the buyer beware.” It was one of the first codes of law in world history, predated only by the Laws of Lipit-Ishtar.
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1750 BC
Hammurabi established a code of laws. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
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1750 BC
Hammurabi died but his empire lasted another 150 years when the Kassites, a non-semetic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
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1600 BC
The Kassites, a non-semetic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
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1595 BC
The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. They maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own.
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1300 BC
A middle eastern empire of this time.
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1225 BC
The Assyrian ruler, Tukulti-Ninurta, captured Babylon and the region of southern Mesopotamia, but their control did not last long.
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1000 BC
Chaldeans traced their origins to about this time in Babylon.
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689 BC
Sennacherib of Assyria destroyed Babylon, but his son rebuilt it.
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650 BC
Babylon by this time was again prosperous following its destruction in 689 by Sennacherib of Assyria.
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609 BC
593 BC
Pharaoh Necho II ruled Egypt.
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605 BC
562 BC
Nebuchadnezzar ruled over his empire centered at Babylon.
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605 BC
562 BC
Nebuchadnezzar II ruled in Babylon. He undertook some monumental building projects that included the Hanging Gardens. The New Babylonian Revival used glazed bricks for building thereby creating a colorful city. The king was fond of spinach.
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604 BC
562 BC
Nebuchadnezzar II ruled in Babylon. He undertook some monumental building projects that included the Hanging Gardens. The New Babylonian Revival used glazed bricks for building thereby creating a colorful city. The king was fond of spinach.
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604 BC
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invaded and put the Philistines' cities to the sword. There is no remnant of them after that.
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586 BC
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, ruler of Mesopotamia, destroyed Jerusalem and recorded his deeds at the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River) cliff face between Beirut and Byblos. He destroyed the first Temple, built by Solomon and took the Jewish people into captivity.
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586 BC
Ezekial, in exile at Babylon, described Tyre as it was before Nebuchadnezzar's attack in the Bible: (Ezekial 27:1-25). This time is known as the "Babylonian Captivity."
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585 BC
572 BC
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon began his 13 year siege of Tyre.
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539 BC
Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612BC, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read "the handwriting on the wall." The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem. The Cyrus Cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was discovered in 1879 and became considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
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486 BC
Darius (b.550), ruler of Persia, died. His preparations for a 3rd expedition against Greece were delayed by an insurrection in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes.
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465 BC
424 BC
Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes I, ruled Persia in the Achaemenis dynasty and Egypt as the 4th king of the 27th Dynasty.
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401 BC
In the Battle of Cunaxa Cyrus, king of Persia, attempted to oust his brother Artaxerxes from rule over Babylon. Greek forces, hired to help Cyrus, were left stranded when Cyrus died. The Greek army elected Xenophon to lead them back home. Xenophon later authored his “Anabasis” (expedition up country), which told the story of return home. In 2005 Tim Rood authored “The Sea, The Sea,” an analysis of Xenophon’s life story following his death.
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350 BC
Babylonian tables of astronomical numbers regularly use zero.
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323 BC Jun 10
Alexander died In Persia at Babylon at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt. Apelles was a painter in Alexander's court. He had been commissioned by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander's concubine. Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him in marriage. In 1984 Curtius Quintas Rufus authored "the History of Alexander." In 1991 Peter Green authored "Alexander of Macedon, A Historical Biography."

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276
The prophet Mani (b.210), a resident of Babylon, died. His writings led to Manichaeism, one of the major Iranian Gnostic religions, originating in Sassanid Persia. Although most of his original writings have been lost, numerous translations and fragmentary texts have survived. Manichaeism is distinguished by its elaborate cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness.
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500
The second component of the Talmud, the Gemara, was compiled about this time in Babylon (later Iraq). It is a discussion of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Tanakh. The first component, the Mishnah, the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law, dated to around 200.
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776
Al-Jahiz (d.868), Muslim theologian and scholar, was born in Basra about this time. He is credited with writing nearly two hundred works, although fewer than one hundred survive today. His most famous work is Al-Hayawan” (The Book of animals), which merges discussions of zoology with philosophy.
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1271
The Polos were called back to Acre where the new Pope assigned two friars, Fra Nicolo da Vicenza and Fra Guielmo da Tripoli, to accompany them to visit the grand khan. They reached Armenia and heard that the soldan of Babylonia, named Bundokdari, had invaded Armenian territory. The friars feared for their lives and returned home.
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1873 Mar 2
George Smith, British Assyriologist, arrived at the ruins of Nineveh outside Mosul (Iraq). Over the next few weeks he found tablets referring to more pieces of the Gilgamesh story, a record of kings in the Babylonian dynasties, as well as lists of cuneiform symbols.
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1879
The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered by the Assyro-British archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam in the foundations of the Esagila, the main temple of Babylon, and was later placed in the British Museum in London. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was later considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
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1879
The clay Cyrus cylinder, covered in Babylonian cuneiform script, was uncovered in Iraq.
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