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145Mil BC
65Mil BC
Researchers in 2009 said fossils from this period, unearthed in what later became the Sahara desert, revealed a once-swampy world divided up among a half-dozen species of unusual and perhaps intelligent crocodiles. They lived during the Cretaceous period, when the continents were closer together and the world warmer and wetter. They were given snappy names, such as: BoarCroc, RatCroc, DogCroc, DuckCroc and PancakeCroc.
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94Mil BC
In 2001 fossils of a large sauropod were discovered in Egypt near the remote Bahariya oasis. A Univ. of Pennsylvania team named it Paralititan stromeri (tidal giant of Stromer) after a German scientist who had studied the area.
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40Mil BC
The whale species Basilosaurus (king lizard) isis was discovered in 1904. Paleontologists found bones of this creature in the 1830s in Louisiana. Fossils were found by U of Mich. paleontologist P.D. Gingerich in Egypt in 1989. With tiny hind limbs too weak to support its body on land, Gingerich believes it spent its entire life in the ocean. It reached about 40 feet.
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40Mil BC
In 2005 the successful excavation of an unusually complete and well-preserved skeleton of the 40 million-year-old fossil whale Basilosaurus isis was completed in Egypt. The 18 meter (50 feet) skeleton was found in Wadi Hitan in the Western Sahara of Egypt. The first Basilosaurus fossil was found in 1905 but no full skeleton has been discovered until now.
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5100 BC
A slate plaque from pre-dynastic Egypt was carved with scenes of battlefield carnage on one side and leaf munching antelope on the other. It was part of an exhibit at the Guggenheim.
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5000 BC
A complex of slabs and stones in southern Egypt that may date this far back was found during field work that ended in 1997. The site included 10 slabs, some 9 feet tall, 30 rock-lined ovals, 9 burial sites for cows, and a "calendar circle" of stones. They were thought to have been constructed by cattle-herders and used for astronomical observations.
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5000 BC
3500 BC
The predynastic period of Egypt.
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4241 BC
The Egyptian calendar was established.
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3600 BC
In 2005 a team working for five years in the area of Kom El-Ahmar, Egypt, known in antiquity as Hierakonpolis, excavated a complex thought to belong to a ruler of the ancient city who reigned around this time. Archaeologists unearthed seven corpses believed to date to the era, as well as an intact figure of a cow's head carved from flint.
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3600 BC
3500 BC
An Egyptian cemetery of working class inhabitants at Hierankopolis of this time showed evidence of mummification.
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3500 BC
3100 BC
In Egypt the "Knife of Gebel-el-Arak" was made with an ivory handle carved with hunting and battle scenes. It is now in the French Louvre.
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3300 BC
3200 BC
In 1998 clay tablets were reported from this date from the tomb of an Egyptian king named Scorpion. The tablets had writing that recorded linen and oil deliveries as a tithe to the king. The tomb was in a cemetery at Gebel Tjauti in Suhag province, some 250 miles south of Cairo. Egyptologists John Coleman Darnell and wife Deborah discovered the tableau in 1995.
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3250 BC
King Scorpion ruled Upper (southern) Egypt.
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3250 BC
King Scorpion ruled Upper (southern) Egypt. Evidence of wine was found in his tomb and scientists believed it was produced in Jordan and transported by donkey and boat to Egypt.
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3100 BC
In the protodynastic period of Egypt "Scorpion" ruled and was followed by Narmer. In 2002 Jan Assmann authored "The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs.
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3100 BC
Menes, the legendary first pharaoh of Egypt, ruled upper Egypt from Nekhen before he conquered lower Egypt and moved his capital to Memphis.
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3100 BC
The upper and lower kingdoms were united to form the 1st Dynasty of Egypt. The fertile Nile Valley and prevailing environmental conditions led to the formation of villages along the river—Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. These villages grew into 'kingdoms' centered around Naqadah (later Hierakonopolis) in the south and Behdet (later Buto) in the delta. According to tradition, the upper and lower kingdoms were united into one centralized government by King Menes around 3100BC. However, modern scholars are unsure whether King Menes was actually several kings, including Narmer and Aha. Menes' reign lasted a substantial 62 years before being killed by a hippopotamus (again according to tradition). The 1st dynasty lasted until about 2890BC.
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3100 BC
2770 BC
The Archaic Period of Egypt. Narmer united Egypt and hieroglyphic writing developed.
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3100 BC
2700 BC
In Egypt the limestone "Stele of the Serpent King" has a bas-relief of a falcon in profile above a nearly abstract curving stroke of a snake. It is now in the French Louvre.
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3050 BC
2890 BC
In Egypt Hor-Aha ruled and was followed by Djer, Djet, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qa'a. These rulers comprised the 1st dynasty.
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3000 BC
The Egyptians used reed brushes on papyrus to write hieroglyphics.
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2980 BC
The tomb of King Den, from this time, later showed evidence of mummification.
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2890 BC
2686
This is the period of Egypt’s 2nd Dynasty. Hotepsekhemwy ruled and was followed by Raneb, Nynetjer, Weneg, Seth-Peribsen and Khasekhemwy.
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2772 BC
In Egypt the 365 day calendar was introduced.
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2686 BC
2181 BC
This is the period of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.
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2686 BC
2668 BC
Sanakhte, the older brother of Djoser, founded Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.
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2686 BC
2181 BC
Chairs in the early dynasties of Egypt stood on what looked like animals' legs. Low reliefs of Egypt’s Old Kingdom, now in the French Louvre, enumerate an ideal meal to be taken to a tomb.
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2668 BC
2649 BC
Djoser (Dzoser, Zoser) was the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty. The first step pyramid was designed for Dzoser by Imhotep.
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2650 BC
2180 BC
Egyptian wall paintings included information on beer production. In 2004 Japan’s Kirin Brewery produced a beer dubbed “The Old Kingdom Beer.”
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2649 BC
2643 BC
Sekhemkhet was the 3rd ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.
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2643 BC
2637 BC
Khaba was the 4th ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.
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2637 BC
2613 BC
Huni was the 5th ruler of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty.
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2620 BC
2500 BC
A polychrome stele of Egyptian Princess Nefertiabet depicts her dining in a one-shoulder leopard-skin gown. It is now in the French Louvre.
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2620 BC
2500 BC
An Egyptian painted limestone statue of a "Seated Scribe" dates to this period. It is now in the French Louvre.
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2613 BC
2589 BC
Snefru (Snofru), son of Huni, was the 1st king of Egypt’s 4th Dynasty. Snefru’s scribes left a description of 40 ships bearing timber arriving to Egypt from Byblos. On Mar 9,1925, the Egyptian Ministry of Public Works announced the discovery of the 5,000-year-old tomb of King Sneferu.
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2601 BC
In Egypt Nik’ure, the son of a pharaoh, died and left what was later recognized as the oldest Last Will and Testament. "Being of sound mind and body…" He left his wealth to his wife, 3 children and to another woman.
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2600 BC
Tombs of the priest Kai were built about this time in Egypt. In 1999 they were found in a cemetery west of Cheop's pyramid.
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2589 BC
2566 BC
Khufu (Cheops), son of Snefru and Queen Hetepheres, ruled as the 2nd king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty. Khufu built the Great Pyramid. It rose about 100 feet. Two more were built for his 2 wives, Henutsen and Meryetes. Laborers reportedly went on strike to get a daily ration of garlic.
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2566 BC
2558 BC
Djedefre (Radjedef) succeeded his father Khufu and ruled as the 3rd king of Egypt’s 4th Dynasty (2528BC-2520BC).
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2558 BC
2532 BC
Khafre ruled as the 4th king of Egypt’s 4th dynasty. His pyramid is the 2nd largest on Egypt’s Giza Plateau. The Sphinx was built under his rule. In 1996 a 4,500 year-old perfectly intact alabaster statue of Pharaoh Khaefre was part of a 1996 show on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida. In 2002 Christine Zivie-Coche authored "Sphinx: History of a Monument."
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2550 BC
In 2006 a scientist proposed that beginning about this time Egyptians started to use cast concrete in their pyramids. His evidence was taken from samples of the Khufu pyramid. The proposal was controversial in that concrete was later used to restore pyramids.
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2532 BC
2504 BC
Menkaure ruled, son of Khafre, as the 5th king in Egypt’s 4th dynasty.
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2504 BC
2500 BC
Shepseskaf, son of Menkaure, ruled as the 6th king in Egypt’s 4th dynasty.
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2500 BC
The tomb of an Egyptian child from about this time was found to contain toys that included miniature pins and balls and a wicket, the first evidence of bowling.
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2500 BC
By this time the Sahara desert looked much as it does today.
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2500 BC
A 330-foot-tall Egyptian pyramid was erected about this time and came to be known as the ‘Bent’ pyramid, located outside the village of Dahshur. In 2009 travelers were given access to its inner chambers.
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2498 BC
2491 BC
Userkaf, grandson of Djedefre, ruled as the 1st king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. He buit a pyramid complez at Saqqara.
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2494 BC
Pharaoh Khafre, builder of the second largest of the Giza Pyramids, died around this time.
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2491 BC
2477 BC
Sahure ruled as the 2nd king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. He built a pyramid complex at Abusir. He established an Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to Punt and traded with Palestine.
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2477 BC
2467 BC
Neferirkare, brother of Sahure, ruled as the 3rd king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. In 1893 local farmers discovered hieratic papyrus at his pyramid complex consisting of some 300 fragments.
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2467 BC
2460 BC
Shepseskare ruled in Egypt, according to the Turin King-list, for 7 years. Some seal impressions dated to his reign have been found at Abusir.
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2460 BC
2453 BC
Neferefre ruled as the 5th king of Egypt’s 5th Dynasty.
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2453 BC
2422 BC
Niusserre (Nyuserre) ruled as the 6th king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty. In 1893 local farmers discovered hieratic papyrus at his pyramid complex consisting of some 300 fragments.
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2422 BC
2414 BC
Menkauhor ruled as the 7th king of Egypt’s 5th dynasty.
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2414 BC
2375 BC
Djedkare ruled at the end of the 6th dynasty.
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2400 BC
In Egypt the bas-reliefs lining the Mastaba of Akhethetep depict the rural life of a prosperous landowner. The chapel is in the French Louvre.
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2400 BC
The earliest reference to circumcision dates back to around 2400 B.C. A bas-relief in the ancient burial ground of Saqqara depicts a series of medical scenes, including a flint-knife circumcision and a surgeon explaining, "The ointment is to make it acceptable," likely referring to some form of topical anaseptic.
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2375 BC
2345 BC
Unas ruled at the end of Egypt’s 6th dynasty.
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2355 BC
2195 BC
This is the period of Egypt’s 6th Dynasty.
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2350 BC
Akhethetep, a high ranking official, lived about this time. His mastaba tomb is located in Saqqara, Egypt.
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