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5Mil BC
Lake Ohrid was created about this time. The 18-mile-long mountain lake bordered Albania and Macedonia.
Links: Albania, Macedonia, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1225 BC
Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus, died.
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1000 BC
The Illyrians were Indo-European tribesmen who appeared in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula about 1000 BC. Albanians derive their name from an Illyrian tribe called the Arber, or Arbereshė, and later Albanoi, that lived near Durrės.
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400 BC
300 BC
King Bardhylus united Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
360 BC
Perdiccas III, the king of Macedonia in northern Greece, was killed in a battle with Illyrian tribes. His son was an infant so control of the army passed to his younger brother, Philip.
Links: Albania, Macedonia, Greece     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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358 BC
Philip II of Macedonia marched his men into territories he had ceded to Paionia, Illyria and Thrace, where he routed his enemies and forced them to pledge allegiance to Macedonia.
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312 BC
King Glauk of Illyria expelled the Greeks from Durrės.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
232 BC
King Agron died, the Illyrian throne was occupied by Queen Teuta.
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165 BC
Romans captured King Gent of Illyria and sent him to Rome. Illyria went under Roman control.
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44 BC
Caesar began building a colony at Butrint, Albania. Titus Pomponius Atticus described the area as "the quietest, coolest, most pleasant place in the world."
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1
100
Christianity came to Illyrian populated areas.
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9
Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugated the Illyrians and divided present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.
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193 Apr 9
In the Balkans, the distinguished soldier Septimius Seversus was proclaimed emperor by the army in Illyricum.
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300
700
Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
395
Division of Roman Empire left lands presently inhabited by Albanians under the administration of the Eastern Empire.
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700
800
Slav tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilated the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians in the south averted assimilation.
Links: Albania, Bosnia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
732
Illyrians were subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian.
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1054
The Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.
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1081
Albania and Albanians were mentioned for the first time in a historical record by a Byzantine emperor.
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1100
1200
Serbs occupied parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
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1204
Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
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1272
Forces of the King of Naples occupied Durrės and established the Kingdom of Arbėria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1385
Albanian ruler of Durrės invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
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1389 Jun 15
The Serbs were defeated by Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Kosovo at the Field of the Blackbirds. In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery at Grancanica in Kosovo. Sultan Murad, the Ottoman leader was killed in the battlefield by the wounded son-in-law of King Lazar. Serbs say that Albanians aided the Turkish invaders. Historical evidence shows that both forces were multinational and that Serbs and Albanian fought on both sides. In 1999 Ismail Kadare, Albanian author, wrote "Elegy for Kosovo," in which he retells the story of the battle. Bosnian King Tvrtko and other Balkan princes along with Albanians fought under the command of Serbian Prince Lazar.
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1403
Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1443
After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1444
The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
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1449
Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
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1468
Skanderbeg (62) of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
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1478
Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
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1479
Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1600
1650
In the early Seventeenth Century: Some Albanians who converted to Islam found careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.
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1600
1800
About two-thirds of the Albanians converted to Islam.
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1799 Mar 7
In Palestine, Napoleon captured Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1822
Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1830
1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.
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1835
The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1861
The first school known to use Albanian language in modern times was opened in Shkodra.
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1878 Mar 3
Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
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1878 Mar 3
The Treaty of Berlin was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Abdul Hamid II revised the Treaty of San Stefano signed on 3 March the same year. The Treaty of San Stefano had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. The Slavic converts to Islam in the Sandzak region of southwestern Serbia were separated from their ethnic cousins in Bosnia.
Links: Albania, Austria, Bosnia, Turkey, Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Britain, Montenegro, Serbia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1878 Jul 13
The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers.
Links: Albania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1881
Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families were arrested and deported.
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1897
Ottoman authorities disbanded a reactivated League of Prizren, executed its leader and banned Albanian language books.
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1908
Albanian intellectuals met in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.
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1910 Aug 26
Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (d.1997), later known as Mother Teresa and care-taker of the poor in Calcutta, was born to an ethnic Albanian family in Uskub (later Skopje, Macedonia). In 1950 she founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta and in 1979 was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for her work.
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1912 May
Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
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1912 Oct 8
Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later [see Oct 18].


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1912 Oct 18
The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire.
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1912 Nov 28
Albanian delegates at Vlora declared the independence of Albania and established a provisional government. This marked Albania’s Independence Day.
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1912 Dec 4
An armistice was signed to end the First Balkan War. Following several victories over the Ottoman army, coalition forces occupied Macedonia and forced the Ottoman Empire to seek an armistice.
Links: Albania, Bosnia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia, Greece     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1912 Dec 25
Italy landed troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
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1912 Dec
Ambassadorial conference opened in London and discussed Albania's fate.
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1912
European powers awarded Kosovo to Serbia rather than the new Republic of Albania. [see Nov, 1913]
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1913 May 30
New country of Albania formed.
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1913 May 30
Conclusion of the First Balkan War. The Treaty of London ended First Balkan War, and the Second Balkan War began.
Links: Albania, Bosnia, Yugoslavia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1913 Jul 10
Rumania entered the Second Balkan War war and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian "liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own atrocities.
Links: Albania, Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1913 Jul 30
Conclusion of 2nd Balkan War. [see Aug 10]
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1913 Aug 10
The Great Powers recognized an independent Albanian state. Demographics were ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) were divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
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1913 Sep 23
Serbian troops marched into Albania.
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1913 Oct 18
Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
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