Home
Subject list

USSR

Next     Prev
Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ...

1907
Stalin (1879-1953) organized an armed robbery on 2 coaches carrying treasure to the state bank in central Tbilisi, Georgia. He delivered his gains to Lenin. In 2007 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored “Young Stalin.”
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1909
Scouting first came to Lithuania, as part of tsarist Russia. The indigenous Lithuanian Scout movement began in 1918, when the first Scout troop was founded in Vilnius by Scouter Petras Jurgela. In 1922, the first Scout General Assembly united the Lithuanian Scout Movement into the Scout Association of Lithuania. In 1924, the Scout Association of Lithuania was registered as a member of the World Bureau. Lithuania was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1923 to 1940.
Links: Russia, Lithuania, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1917 Nov 7
(October 25 old style Julian calendar then used by Russia) The provisional government of Premier Aleksandr Kerensky fell to the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. He called his followers the Bolsheviks, meaning the majority, when they formed for a short period the majority of a revolutionary committee. The Bolsheviks became a majority of the ruling group, but they were only a small part of the total Russian population. Decades of czarist incompetence and the devastation of World War I had wrecked the Russian economy and in March 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated. Kerensky's provisional government struggled to maintain power until Lenin's Bolshevik followers stormed Petrograd and seized all government operations. Lenin and his lieutenant, Leon Trotsky, quickly confiscated land and nationalized industry and in March 1918, Russia withdrew from World War I by signing the humiliating Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. Bloody civil war raged in Russia for the next two years as the anti-Bolshevik White Army battled the Communists for control. [see Nov 6] This day became a national holiday and continued until it was abolished in late 2004.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1918 Jul 17
Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, was executed at Ekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks under orders from Lenin. His wife, son, 4 daughters, and 4 servants were also executed. The family mass grave was discovered by a former KGB agent in 1979 in the Urals and only 9 bodies were found. The bodies were dug up in 1991. A 1997 documentary film by Victoria Lewis, "Mystery of the Last Tsar," told the story. The Czar, his wife, three children and four servants were executed by a 12-man firing squad in the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. A reburial of the family was scheduled in St. Petersburg for Jul 17, 1998.
Links: Russia, USSR, Murder     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1918 Jul 17
Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna (b.1864) was murdered at a mine the village of Siniachikha. The Cheka beat Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich Romanov, Princes Ioann Konstantinovich, Konstantin Konstantinovich, Igor Konstantinovich, Vladimir Pavlovich Paley, Feodor Remez (Grand Duke Sergei's secretary), and Varvara Yakovleva, a sister from the Grand Duchess's convent, before throwing their victims into a pit, Elizabeth being the first. Hand grenades were then hurled down the shaft, but only one victim, Feodor Remez, died as a result of the grenades. Finally a large quantity of brushwood was shoved into the opening and set alight.
Links: Russia, USSR, Murder     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
We offer additional services to help you as well including tax attorney help with tax relief issues, auto accident attorney services, and sustainable development information to research going green!
1918 Dec 11
Alexander Solzhenitsyn (d.2008), Russian writer, was born. He won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize and is famous for “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich” (1962) and "The Gulag Archipelago" (1973). Daniel J. Mahoney later authored "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Ascent From Ideology."
Links: Russia, Writer, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1918
South Ossetians made a bid to break away from Georgia and thousands fled in the ensuing violence. Menshevik Georgia waged a brutal war to absorb Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 1921 the Red Army regained control and absorbed all three into the Soviet Union.
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR, Abkhazia, South Ossetia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1919 Feb 27
The Bolsheviks took Lithuania and joined it with Belarus as a single Soviet republic. Litbel lasted until June 25.
Links: Belarus, Russia, Lithuania, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1920 Apr 20
The VII Olympiad opened in Belgium. The Olympic oath and flag showing 5 interlocking rings as a symbol of the 5 continents made their first appearance at the Antwerp Olympics. Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Turkey and Hungary were not invited and the new Soviet Union decided not to attend.
Links: Belgium, Russia, Olympics, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1920 Jul 8
The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) was formed and lasted to September 21, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army.
Links: Russia, Poland, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
International Red Cross
Make a donation
1920
A treaty between Norway and Russia allowed Russia to pursue mining in the Svalbard islands at Spitsbergen.
Links: Russia, USSR, Norway     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1920
During Polish-Soviet war thousands of captured Red Army men were placed in the camp of Тuchola, Poland. These POWs lived in trenches, while famine, cold, and infectious diseases killed tens of prisoners daily. In the winter 1920/1921 POWs had a death rate of about 25%, which was attributed to malnutrition, poor sanitary conditions, lack of fuel and medicines, and physical maltreatment by the Polish supervisors.
Links: Russia, Poland, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1921 Mar 21
Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) was promulgated by decree.
Links: Russia, USSR, Economics     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1921
The borders of the region were gerrymandered when the Caucasus territories were made part of the Soviet Union. This made the area of Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous enclave of mostly Armenians surrounded by Azerbaijan dependent on Moscow.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1921
1944
The Soviets allowed Tuva to call itself independent. Tuvan stamps are issued by Moscow in odds shapes and they became collector's items.
Links: Russia, Postage, USSR, Tuva     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
1921
A Soviet famine began with a drought that caused massive crop failures, including total crop failure on about 20% of Soviet farmland. a Soviet estimate put the death toll at 5.1 million.
Links: Russia, USSR, Drought     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1922 Feb 1
Lieutenant Colonel I. Matuszewski, the head of the II department of the Polish Joint Staff, informed the military minister of Poland in the letter, that 22,000 prisoners of war were lost in the camp of Tuchola during its existence.
Links: Russia, Poland, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1922
Lenin deported 70 of the best minds in Russia along with their families. In 2006 Lesley Chamberlain authored “The Philosophy Steamer: Lenin and the Exile of the Intelligentsia.”
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1922
The Constructivist group of artists in Russia issued a manifesto calling for the defeat of art, which they regarded as the enemy of technology. Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956), a painter turned photographer, was founding member of the group.
Links: Artist, Russia, USSR, Photography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1922
South Ossetia became an autonomous region within the Soviet Republic of Georgia.
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR, South Ossetia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
Timelines
A text-based site.
1924
Stalin divided remnants of Turkestan into the current Central Asian republics.
Links: Uzbekistan, Russia, USSR, Turkmenistan     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1924
The Bolsheviks formed a tiny Soviet Republic here as a basis for later taking over a chunk of Romania.
Links: USSR, Transdniestria     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1924
The Bolsheviks formed the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), aka Transdniestria, as a basis for later taking over a chunk of Romania.
Links: Russia, USSR, Transdniestria     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1927
Sergius, a Greek Orthodox bishop, signed an agreement accepting the Soviet Union as a “civil motherland.”
Links: Russia, USSR, Religion     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1928
In the USSR a show trial of the North Caucasus Shakhty engineers paved the way for Stalin’s consolidation of power in 1929. They were accused of sabotaging coal production in Shakhty on orders from the Germans. The trial initiated a period of terror against technicians and engineers. The trial resulted in five of the 53 accused engineers being sentenced to death and another 44 sent to prison.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
We offer additional services to help you as well including tax attorney help with tax relief issues, auto accident attorney services, and sustainable development information to research going green!
1930
The Soviet Union began deporting land holders, known as kulaks, along with their families as part of the rural collectivization process. The kulaks made up about a fifth of the Russian peasant class, which consisted of some 25 million households. In 2007 Lynne Viola authored “The Unknown Gulag: The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements.”
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1930
American industrialist Charles R. Crane bought 18 brass bells from the Soviet government, saving them from being melted down in Josef Stalin's purges that saw thousands of monks executed and churches and monasteries destroyed or turned into prisons, orphanages or animal barns. They hung for decades in the towers at Lowell House and Harvard Business School's Baker Library. In 2007 Harvard returned the largest of the bells, the Everyday Bell, to the Danilovsky Monastery and planned to return the rest in 2008.
Links: Russia, USA, Massachusetts, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1930
1960
Millions of people including ethnic Germans and Russian dissidents died during this period, unable to survive starvation and torture in a network of gulag camps scattered from Russia's Arctic tundra to the inhospitable Kazakh steppe.
Links: Kazakhstan, Russia, Germany, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1931 Feb 1
Boris Yeltsin (d.2007), prime minister of Russia (1991-1992) and the first president of the Republic of Russia (1991-1999), was born in the Ural Mts. of the USSR.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1931
USSR leader Joseph Stalin turned Abkhazia into an autonomous region of Georgia. Beria, his secret police chief, later resettled Georgians from the western part of the country in Abkhazia.
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR, Abkhazia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
International Red Cross
Make a donation
1931
The US Dept. of Commerce issued a pamphlet titled “Employment for Americans in So-viet Russia.” In the early 1930s hundreds of American immigrated to the Soviet Union in search of jobs and a new life. Many ended up in mass graves. In 2008 Tim Tzouliadis authored "The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin’s Russia."
Links: Russia, USA, Labor, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1933
Yakov Chernikhov (d.1951) Russian architect, authored "101 Architectural Fantasies." His adventurous designs were poorly regarded by Soviet authorities and few of his buildings were constructed.
Links: Russia, USSR, Architect, Books     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1933
Alexander Rodchenko, artist and photographer, was dispatched to document the White Sea-Baltic Canal project in which some 200,000 political prisoners were killed.
Links: Artist, Russia, USSR, Photography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1933
George F. Kennan (1904-2005) established America’s first embassy in the Soviet Union.
Links: Russia, USA, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1934 Feb
The Chelyuskin, which set off in July 1933 from the port of Murmansk, Russia, for Vladivostok in the Pacific Ocean, got stranded among ice fields in the Bering Sea and sank off the coast of Chukotka. The trip of more than 4,500 miles was meant to demonstrate the Soviet government's assertion that cargo ships could safely take the northern route. Soviet aviators launched over two dozen flights to search for the survivors, and in early March finally evacuated about 10 women and 2 babies born during the sea voyage. Airmen brought out the rest of the passengers and crew men the following month. In 2006 Russian divers found the ship.
Links: Russia, USSR, Ship     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
1934
There were 1,966 delegates to the 17th Soviet Party Congress. By the 1999 Congress 1,108 delegates were arrested and many shot as traitors. In 1999 J. Arch Getty and Oleg V. Naumov co-wrote "The Road To Terror," an examination of the Stalin purges that was a follow-up to Getty's 1985 work "Origins of the Great Purges." The standard account on the purges is "The Great Terror" (1968) by Robert Conquest.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1934
The Soviet Union’s secret police organization-the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs-was better known as the NKVD. The NKVD replaced the State Political Administration, or GPU. The GPU had formerly been known as the Cheka. During World War II there were several reorganizations of the NKVD, out of which grew the MGB, or Ministry of State Security. The MGB evolved into the KGB in 1954.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1936 Nov
1936 Dec
In Spain hundreds of Franco supporters were killed at Paracuellos. Between 2,000 and 4,000 suspected supporters of the coup against the Second Spanish Republic, were killed by the Republican Army. The Soviet NKVD was later implicated.
Links: Russia, Spain, USSR, Massacre     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1936
Bela Kun (b.1886), Hungarian leftist revolutionary, died. He is believed to have met his end in one of Stalin's innumerable purges.
Links: Hungary, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1936
1939
The Spanish Civil War has been commonly referred to as "a rehearsal for World War II" by historians because of the intervention by Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Soviet Union, and their use of the war to test new weapons and military techniques. It was fought between the liberal Second Spanish Republic government and right-wing rebel forces, including the fascist Falangists, monarchists and Nationalists. The rebels had the support of the Roman Catholic Church, in addition to Germany and Italy. The Government supporters, called Loyalists, had the support of communists, socialists, anarchists, the Soviet Union and volunteers from around the world who formed the International Brigades. Between 400,000 and 1 million were killed in the war, ultimately won by the rebels. In 2008 Paul Preston authored “We Saw Spain Die: Foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War.” In 2012 Paul Preston authored “The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain.”
Links: Russia, Spain, Germany, USSR, Journalism     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
Timelines
A text-based site.
1937 Oct 7
Igor Moiseyev (b.1906), founder of the Moiseyev folk-dance troupe, offered the troupe’s first public performance in Moscow.
Links: Russia, USSR, Dance     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1937
Stalin ordered a major overhaul of Uzbek leadership and heads began to roll. The artist Alexander Rodchenko, who had designed the album “Ten Years of Uzbekistan,” blotted out the photos of purged Uzbek leaders in his personal copy. It provided grist for the 1997 book by David King “The Commissar Vanishes,” that describes how Stalin manipulated images for his benefit.
Links: Uzbekistan, Artist, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1937
Stalin deported some 180,000 Soviet Koreans from their homes and farms and sent them by cattle car to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Links: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia, South Korea, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1937
The USSR census of this year reported a decline in the population to 162 million and Stalin had the officials responsible for the count shot. He had told officials a year earlier that the count would be 170 million, which ignored those who died in famines and purges.
Links: Russia, USSR, Census     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1938 Jan 30
Islom Abduganievich Karimov was born in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. He became president of Uzbek SSR in 1990.
Links: Uzbekistan, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
We offer additional services to help you as well including tax attorney help with tax relief issues, auto accident attorney services, and sustainable development information to research going green!
1939 Mar 22
Germany marched into Klaipeda (Memel), Lithuania. The Lithuanian warship Prezidentas Smetona was left without a harbor. The ship soon settled at Latvia’s port of Liepaja. In December Ltn. P. Labanauskas was named captain. In 1940 Soviet occupiers called for the ship to raise the Soviet flag, but Captain Labanauskas sailed the ship out of Soviet territory. The ship was later handed over to the Soviet Baltic fleet. On Jan 11, 1945, it hit a mine and sank off the coast of Finland.
Links: Russia, Germany, Lithuania, USSR, Ship     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1939 May 3
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin replaced Maxim Litvinov, the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, with Vyacheslav Molotov.
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1939 Nov 26
Soviets charged Finland with an artillery attack on border leading to a 105-day Winter War. Soviet Foreign Minister V.M. Molotov accused Finnish troops of firing at the Russians across the 800-mile (1,300km) border near the southeastern village of Mainila.
Links: Russia, Finland, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1939
1945
Norman Davies covered this period in his 2006 book “Europe at War 1939-1945: No Simple Victory.” His central theme was the Western alliance with Stalin and its consequences. In 2012 Max Hastings authored “All Hell Let Loose: The World At War: 1939-1945.” On average nearly 30,000 people were killed every day.
Links: Russia, USA, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1939
1953
This period is covered in Geoffrey Roberts’ 2007 book: “Stalin’s Wars: From World War to Cold War.”
Links: Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
International Red Cross
Make a donation
1939
The USSR census of this year classified the results and reported 170 million to Stalin. Census officials responsible for the 1937 census had been shot for their count of 162 million.
Links: Russia, USSR, Census     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1940 Mar 5
Stalin among others signed an Order for the massacre at Katyn, Poland. Soviet agents shot 21,768 Polish military officers, intellectuals and priests who had been taken prisoner during the invasion. Between April and May some 25,700 (15,000) Polish citizens were massacred by the Soviets in the Katyn and Miednoje (Mednoye) forests on the outskirts of Moscow and at Kharkov in western Russia (later Ukraine). Some 14,700 Polish officers were identified by their uniforms. Documents were made public in 1992 by Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first post-Soviet leader. They included a letter by Lavrenty Beria, head of the secret police, recommending the execution of the Polish prisoners of war. The letter bears the signatures of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin and three other members of the Politburo. Excavations of the sites began in 1994. 6,313 Polish officers were all shot in the back of the head near Mednoye. 9,000 Russians were also massacred at the site. In 2008 Andrzej Wajda directed the film “Katyn.” In 2004 Russia's top military prosecutor closed the investigation after concluding that the massacre did not constitute genocide. In 2009 Russia's Supreme Court rejected appeals to re-open the investigation. On April 7, 2010, Russian PM Vladimir Putin attended a memorial ceremony. Hours later he said Stalin had ordered the atrocity as revenge for the death of Red Army soldiers in Polish prisoner of war camps in 1920.
Links: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, USSR, Mass murder     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1940 Mar 10
Mikhail Bulgakov (b.1891), Russian author, died in Moscow. His novel “The Master and Margarita,” which satirized life under Stalin, was written between 1928 and the author’s death. It was not published until 1966-67 in the Russian journal Moskva, with some 60 pages cut.
Links: Russia, Writer, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1940 Mar 13
The 105-day war between Russia and Finland ended with the signing of a treaty in Moscow. Finland capitulated conditionally to Soviet terms, but maintains its independence. Some 27,000 Finnish soldiers were killed and 43,000 wounded in a population of 3.7 million. The Soviet Union put its losses at 217,500 dead or wounded.
Links: Russia, Finland, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1940 Jun 26
The Soviet Union delivered an ultimatum to Romania and 2 days later occupied Bessarabia and North Bukovina.
Links: Russia, Romania, USSR, Moldova, Bessarabia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
1940 Aug 21
Leon Trotsky, exiled Communist revolutionary, died in Mexico City from wounds inflicted by an assassin the day before. Earlier this year Josef Grigulevich (27), a Lithuania-born KGB agent, established a safe house at Zook's Pharmacy in Santa Fe, NM, for the assassins of Leon Trotsky. The pharmacy, visible in archive photos, was replaced in 1990 by a Haagen-Dazs ice cream shop. Grigulevich was recruited by Soviet strongman Josef Stalin's secret police as a university student in Paris and learned the assassin's trade during the Spanish civil war. He later published 58 books on Latin American history. In 2011 intelligence expert E.B. Held authored "A Spy's Guide to Albuquerque and Santa Fe."
Links: Russia, Lithuania, Mexico, USSR, New Mexico, Assassin     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1940 Sep 17
Lithuanian Activist Front or LAF (Lithuanian: Lietuvos aktyvistų frontas), a short-lived resistance organization, was established after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union. The LAF was ferociously anti-Polish and anti-Jewish.
Links: Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Jews, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1941 Feb 16
Kim Jong Il, son of Kim Il Sung, was born in the far East of the Soviet Union. He took over leadership of North Korea from his father in 1994.
Links: Russia, North Korea, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1941 Jun 13
Thousands of Jewish community leaders in Bessarabia (Moldova) were deported to Siberia as part of the general purge. The Soviet Union, which had occupied the former Romanian province a year earlier, loaded 22,600 Moldovans on cargo trains bound for Siberia, where the deportees were used for forced labor.
Links: Russia, Jews, USSR, Siberia, Moldova     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1941 Jun 14
Over 10,000 people (10,861 according to some sources) were deported as whole families from Estonia. About 230 Estonian officers serving in the 22nd Estonian Territorial Corps of the Red Army were imprisoned at the summer camp of the Estonian Army in southeastern Estonia. Most of them were sent to the Norilsk prison camp, where most of them either died or were executed.
Links: Russia, Estonia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
Timelines
A text-based site.

Next     Prev
Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ...



Go to top