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1.8Mil BC
1.8Mil BC Hominid fossils and crude stone tools of this time were found in the former Soviet republic of Georgia in 1991 beneath the ruins of a medieval castle at Dmanisi. A 3rd smaller skull was found in 2002. All 3 were tentatively classified as Homo erectus. One skull of a man indicated that he had been almost toothless for at least 2 years before death. In 2013 a study of the findings was published in Science.
Links: Black Sea, Georgia, Anthropology, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
8000 BC
Wine was produced in the region known as Colchis (later Georgia) as early as this time.
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600 BC
Lazica dates back to at least the 6th century BC when the first South Caucasian state in the west was the Kingdom of Colchis which covered modern western Georgia and modern Turkish provinces of Trabzon and Rize. The Laz are a Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group native to the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
Links: Turkey, Georgia, Language, HistoryBC, Lazica     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
500
600
The monastic complex of David Gareja was founded in the 6th century by David (St. David Garejeli), one of the thirteen Assyrian monks who arrived in Georgia at the same time. His disciples Dodo and Luciane expanded the original lavra and founded two other monasteries known as Dodo's Rka (literally, "the horn of Dodo") and Natlismtsemeli ("the Baptist"). Part of the complex is also located in the Agstafa rayon of Azerbaijan and thus became subject to a border dispute between Georgian and Azerbaijani authorities.
Links: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Assyria     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1014 May 7
Bagrat III (b~960) of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty, died. He was King of the Abkhazians from 978 on (as Bagrat II) and King of Kings of the Georgians from 1008 on. He is known to have constructed a magnificent cathedral, the Bagrati Cathedral, at Kutaisi, western Georgia. Its ruins named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994.
Links: Georgia, Abkhazia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1172
1216
Shota Rustaveli, a Georgian poet, lived about this time. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest representatives of the literature of the medieval world. His literary work included “The Knight in the Panther's Skin” ("Vepkhistkaosani" in Georgian), the Georgian national epic poem.
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1178
The wise King Giorgi III of Georgia had his daughter, Tamara (19), crowned as his co-ruler to provide an orderly succession.
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1204
1205
Georgia’s Queen Tamara marched with her men to the rousing victory over the Turks at the Battle of Basiani where she is hailed with the cry, "Our King Tamara."
Links: Turkey, Georgia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1212 Jan 18
Queen Tamara of Georgia in Transcaucasia died after a 24-year reign during which her soldiers proclaim her "our King."
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1236
Queen Rusudani (41), the daughter of Queen Tamara, fled Georgia as the unstoppable Mongol hordes ravished the area. She had been proclaimed "King" at the death of her brother.
Links: Georgia, Mongolia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1258 Feb 10
Huegu (Hulega Khan), a Mongol leader and grandson of Genghis Khan, seized Baghdad following a 4-day assault. Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over Baghdad and ended the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire. They included Uzbeks, Kazaks, Georgians and other groups. Some 200 to 800 thousand people were killed and looting lasted 17 days.
Links: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Georgia, Mongolia, Iran, Persia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1265
Mongols sacked the monastic complex of David Gareja in Georgia.
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1395
Tamerlane, a Turkic conqueror, swept into Southern Russia and Georgia driving locals into the hills.
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1615
The Persians sacked the monastic complex of David Gareja in Georgia.
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1769
1772
A handful of Russian troops of General Totleben battled against Turkish invaders in Imereti and Kartl-Kakheti.
Links: Turkey, Georgia, Russia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1779 Feb
A shootout at Carr's Fort in Georgia turned back men sent to Wilkes County to recruit colonists loyal to the British army. In 2012 archeologists located the site.
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1795
Georgia’s Narikala Fortress and the buildings of Old Tbilisi suffered at the hands of Persian invaders.
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1798 Jan 11
Erekle II (b.~1720), Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, died. He had reigned as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798. His name is frequently transliterated from the Latinized form Heraclius.
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1801 May
Russian General Carl Heinrich Knorring removed the Georgian heir to the throne David Batonishvili from power and deployed a provisional government headed by General Ivan Petrovich Lasarev.
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1801
South Ossetia was absorbed into the Russian Empire along with Georgia.
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1864 Oct
Georgia’s Camp Lawton opened to replace the Andersonville Confederate prison. The new Confederate camp lasted barely 6 weeks before Sherman’s army arrived and burned it. In 2010 A Georgia Southern Univ. graduate student found the site and associated artifacts.
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1876 May
Residents in Tbilisi, Georgia, found a collection of ancient gold jewels in the muddy streets following a downpour. The objects were dated from the 5th to the 1st century BC when the region was known as Colchis.
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1890
The Marxist Armenian Revolutionary Federation, called the Dashnaks, was founded in the Russian Empire, in Tiflis (Georgia).
Links: Armenia, Georgia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1907
Stalin (1879-1953) organized an armed robbery on 2 coaches carrying treasure to the state bank in central Tbilisi, Georgia. He delivered his gains to Lenin. In 2007 Simon Sebag Montefiore authored “Young Stalin.”
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1918
South Ossetians made a bid to break away from Georgia and thousands fled in the ensuing violence. Menshevik Georgia waged a brutal war to absorb Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 1921 the Red Army regained control and absorbed all three into the Soviet Union.
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR, Abkhazia, South Ossetia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1922
South Ossetia became an autonomous region within the Soviet Republic of Georgia.
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1925 Mar 25
Flannery O'Connor (d.1964), novelist and short story writer, was born in Savannah, Georgia.
Links: Georgia, USA, Writer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1930 May 15
Jasper Johns, Jr., painter, leader of the Pop Art movement, was born in Augusta, Ga. He grew up in South Carolina.
Links: Artist, Georgia, USA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1931
USSR leader Joseph Stalin turned Abkhazia into an autonomous region of Georgia. Beria, his secret police chief, later resettled Georgians from the western part of the country in Abkhazia.
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1964 Aug 3
Flannery O'Connor (b.1925), novelist and short story writer, died in Georgia of lupus, an incurable, autoimmune disease. In 2009 Brad Gooch authored “Flannery: A Life of Flannery O’Connor.”
Links: Georgia, USA, Writer, Biography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1970 May 12
In Augusta, Georgia, an overnight riot left 6 black men dead. Autopsies confirmed that the six men killed were all shot in the back with police-issued shotguns.
Links: Georgia, USA, Black History     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1974 Jan 27
Pavel Rafalovich Bermon(d)t-Avalov, (b.1877 in Tbilisi), died in New York. He was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord. He adopted his second surname Avalov after his adoptive father, Georgian prince Mikhail Avalishvili. At the end of WWI he was appointed to lead the German-established Russian army (subsequently frequently known after his name as "the Bermontians") which was meant to go to fight the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War, but, believing that communists would be defeated without his help, he decided to strike against the newly independent nations of Lithuania and Latvia instead. The Bermontians managed to capture a large part of Samogitia and western Latvia and entered Riga, but later were defeated by the Lithuanian and Latvian armies, with the help of the Estonian forces.
Links: Georgia, USA, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1974 Apr 3
A series of 148 deadly tornadoes struck wide parts of the South and Midwest before jumping across the border into Canada; some 330 people were killed in 13 states: Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Total property damage was estimated at $600 million. In 2007 Mark Levine authored “F5: Devastation, Survival, and the Most Violent Tornado Outbreak of the 20th Century.”
Links: Georgia, Canada, Ohio, Virginia, Tennessee, Illinois, North Carolina, South Carolina, Michigan, Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, West Virginia, Indiana, Tornado     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1986
The Georgian film “Repentance” was directed by Tengiz Abuladze. It was an allegory about a small town mayor who gradually becomes a despot. The film was about the crimes of Stalinism and was banned by censors.
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1989 Apr 9
Troops under Gen’l Lebed killed 18 protestors, including 16 women and children, in Tbilisi, Georgia. Colonel Gen’l. Igor Rodionov ordered troops to break up anti-Kremlin protests in Tbilisi.
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1989
1992
South Ossetia defended itself from Georgia with aid from Russia and about 1,000 people died in the fighting. Some 25-40,000 people fled the area.
Links: Georgia, Russia, USSR, Ossetia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1990
Georgian leader Zviad Gamsakhurdia declared South Ossetia part of Georgia and marched on Tskhinvali, the declared capital.
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1991 Mar 31
Voters in the Soviet republic of Georgia overwhelmingly endorsed independence.
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1991 Apr 9
Georgia SSR declared independence from the USSR.
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1991 Apr 29
More than 100 people were killed and some 100,000 were left homeless when a strong earthquake struck Soviet Georgia.
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1991 Jun
Georgian leader Zviad Gamsakhurdia, a noted author and scholar of the iconic Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli, was elected president of Georgia.
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1991
Sex selective abortions began increasing in the Caucasus region as ultrasound equipment became available from the West. By 2013 over 115 boys were born in Armenia and Azerbaijan for every 100 girls. In Georgia the ration was 120 to 100.
Links: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Sex     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1992 Jan 6
After two weeks of fighting, ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia fled the capital, Tbilisi.
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1992 Jul
Russia brokered a cease fire between South Ossetia and Georgia.
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1992
1993
Separatists in the northwestern province of Abkhazia took over control in a civil war. War between Abkhaz forces and Georgians killed 10,000 and left the Black Sea region as a de facto independent but unrecognized state. The Georgian inhabitants, who had numbered 45% of the population, were forced out of the region.
Links: Georgia, Abkhazia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1992
In Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze, former Soviet foreign minister, was elected speaker of Parliament and the became the country's leader.
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1992
In Tbilisi, Georgia, the central-heating system went out of service. Carbon-monoxide poisonings began as residents turned to wood and gas stoves.
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1993 Mar 19
Georgia shot down a Russian warplane over the separatist Abkhazia region, killing its pilot and heightening tensions.
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1993 Aug 8
Freddie Woodruff (b.1947), CIA agent chief in Tbilisi, Georgia, was shot and killed during an outing with friends. Georgian authorities charged Anzor Sharmaidze (20), a volunteer soldier, with the murder. Sharmaidze confessed under torture and later said he was framed for the murder. In 2008 Sharmaidze was granted parole from prison.
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1993 Sep 22
An aircraft operated by Transair Georgia was shot down by Abkhazian separatist forces. It crashed onto the runway and caught fire, killing 108.
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1993 Dec 31
Former Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia (b.1939) died on New Year’s Eve. He had returned to lead an uprising in western Georgia, but the fighting was quickly put down and Gamsakhurdia was surrounded. His body was then taken to Chechnya. In 2007 His body was returned for burial in Georgia.
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1994 Nov
Abkhazia declared independence from Georgia and set up its own government. No other country gave recognition. Residents of the area numbered about 200,000 and spoke their own language. Vladislav Ardzinba became president.
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1994
Georgia reached a cease-fire with Abkhazia.
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1995 Aug 29
In Tbilisi, Georgia, the motorcade of Eduard Shevardnadze was attacked as he left for the ceremonial signing of the new constitution.
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1996
A Black Sea Action Plan was signed by all six coastal nations: Turkey, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria. It was to improve sewage control, develop conservation strate-gies and study a possible special environmental fund.
Links: Black Sea, Turkey, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Environment     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1997 Jan 3
In Washington a diplomat from Georgia, Gueorgui Makharadze, was in a car crash that killed a 16-year-old girl. Police said he was drinking, but he refused a breath test.
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1997 Jan 9
The government of the Republic of Georgia informed the US that diplomat Gueorgui Makharadze would be recalled following his Jan 3 involvement in a car crash that left a 16-year-old Washington girl dead. Police evidence strongly suggested that he had been drinking. He was later sentenced to 7-21 years in US prison.
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1997 Oct 8
Gueorgui Makharadze, a diplomat from the Republic of Georgia, pleaded guilty in Washington to charges stemming from a car crash that killed Maryland teen-ager Jovianne Waltrick.
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1997
Former Soviet republics (Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Moldova) formed Guuam to seek cooperation outside Russian influence.
Links: Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Moldova     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1997
In Georgia rocket-propelled grenades slammed the armor-plated Mercedes of Pres. Shevardnadze and 2 bodyguards were killed.
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