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45000 BC
42000 BC
Archeologists in 2007 reported on human teeth, tools, beads, carved ivory and other artifacts dug up at the Kostenki archeological site on the Don River in Russia, about 250 miles south of Moscow. They dated these artifacts to 45,000 to 42,000 years ago, an age similar to other items found in Western Europe.
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32000 BC
30000 BC
In 2012 A team of Russian scientists revived a plant, Silene stenophylla, whose seeds came from a squirrel’s chamber in Siberian permafrost dating to this time.
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28000 BC
In 2010 it was reported that starch grains found on 30,000-year-old grinding stones suggest that prehistoric man may have dined on an early form of flat bread, contrary to his popular image as primarily a meat-eater. The grinding stones were discovered at sites in Italy, Russia and the Czech Republic.
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7000 BC
The Sami people began herding reindeer in northern Europe about this time as the last Ice Age ended. They were later considered to be Europe’s only indigenous people. By 2013 they numbered about 80,000 including 8,000 in Finland, 50,000 in Norway, 20,000 in Sweden and 2,000 in Russia.
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1600 BC
1400 BC
In 2010 Russian researchers said traces of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization have been discovered in the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains thanks to aerial photographs taken 40 years ago. The civilization dated from the 16th to the 14th centuries BC, high in the mountains south of Kislovodsk. The decorations and forms of bronze items found in the area indicated that the civilization is linked to the Kuban civilization, which was discovered at the end of the 19th century at the foot of Mount Kazbek.
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700 BC
600 BC
A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
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861
The Khazar kings converted to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presided over the Khazar kingdom until the 960s. In 2008 Dmitry Vasilyev, a Russian professor at Astrakhan State University, said his nine-year excavation near the Caspian Sea has finally unearthed the foundations of a triangular fortress of flamed brick, along with modest yurt-shaped dwellings, and he believes these are part of what was once Itil, the Khazar capital.
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911 Sep 2
Viking monarch Oleg of Kiev, Russia, signed a treaty with the Byzantines.
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988
Prince Vladimir of Kiev accepted Byzantine Orthodoxy. This is the traditional date for the beginning of Russian Christianity. The Kievan Rus ruler was baptized in the ancient Crimean Greek city of Chersonesus before bringing Christianity to the region.
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1005
Kazan, the capital of the Russian province of Tatarstan, was founded on the Volga River. In 2005 the city celebrated a millennial anniversary.
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1015
Vladimir I (b.958), a prince of Novgorod and grand prince of Kiev, died. He had married the sister of Byzantine Emp. Basil II and was baptized in Crimea. Originally a Slavic pagan, Vladimir had converted to Christianity in 988 and Christianized the Kievan Rus. His domain split into warring fiefs that eventually gave rise to Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
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1167
Genghis Khan (d.1227) was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator in the early 1160's (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167, but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, "the ironsmith," and he seized control over much of 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. "In Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk.
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1237
1240
Mongols conquered Russian lands.
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1300
1400
Vodka is believed to have originated in the 14th century in the grain-growing region that now embraces Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and western Russia. It also has a long tradition in Scandinavia. The first written record of vodka in Poland dates from 1405 in the Sandomierz Court Registry.
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1328
Moscow became the seat of the Russian Orthodox metropolitanate. Peter the Metropolitan moved from the capital Vladimir to Moscow.
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1336
1405
Timur (aka Timur Lang or Timur Lenk or Tamerlane because of a lame leg) was a Tartar conqueror of a vast empire from southern Russia to Mongolia and southward to India, Persia, and Mesopotamia. After his death the empire fell apart. Prince Timur is a national hero of Uzbekistan.
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1356
Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Svitrigaila, and Yury of Smolensk.
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1370
Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, was born about this time.
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1380 Sep 8
Prince Dmitrii of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikovo Field. This marked the beginning of the decline of Mongol control over Russian lands.
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1392 Sep 25
Sergius of Radonezh, aka Sergii Radonezhsky, (b.~1314-1322), a Russian orthodox monk, died. He helped consolidate the Russian church in the time of Mongol rule and was canonized in 1452 as Moscow's patron saint.
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1395
Tamerlane, a Turkic conqueror, swept into Southern Russia and Georgia driving locals into the hills.
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1399
Russian chronicles state that when Kiev was threatened by the Tartars, Kiev citizens had to pay to Khan Timur Kutluk a contribution of 3000 Lithuanian roubles.
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1405
Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Gospel with Theophan the Greek; this was the 1st work executed in the classical Russian style, distinguished from the Byzantine by its great height and width and organization of multiple, varied icons along axes.
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1410
Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the icon “The Old Testament Trinity,” which showed Abraham’s 3 angels. This is the only work known to be entirely his own.
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1410
Russian chronicles say that Novgorod adopted Lithuanian money as legal tender, and the use of marten skins as money was discontinued.
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1428
1430
Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, took part in painting the frescoes of the Andronikov Monastery’s Church of the Savior.
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1430 Jan 29
Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, died and was buried in the Andronikov Monastery. In 1966 the Russian film “Andrei Rublev” was made by Andrei Tarkovsky.
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1475
1509
Italian architects invited by Ivan III built the Kremlin Cathedrals of the Assumption and the Archangel.
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1478
Russia’s Ivan the Great destabilized territory under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania much of which later became Ukraine. The policy was designed to encourage people living along the frontier to seek Muscovy’s protection.
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1491
In Russia the Spasskaya Tower was built in Moscow. It was designed by Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solairi, who was hired by Ivan III. In 1935 the Soviet government installed a red star instead of a two-headed eagle atop the 233-foot Red Square tower.
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1500
1600
The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers (Khazaria) with their livestock.
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1551
Ivan the Terrible built Sviyazhsk, an island fortress on the Volga to help him conquer the Khanate of Kazan. In 2017 the Assumption Cathedral and Monastery on Svyyazhsk were added to the World Heritage list.
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1552 Aug
Ivan IV of Russia began his conquest of Kazan, Tatarstan, and Astrakhan in the Volga delta. Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, fell to Ivan in September.
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1561
The Basilica of St. Basil in Moscow, begun in 1555, was completed under the reign of Ivan the Terrible to celebrate the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan.
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1600 Feb 19
Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed as the Huaynaputina volcano exploded catastrophically, in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times. The eruption continued with associated earthquakes into March and devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia. The explosion had effects on climate around the Northern Hemisphere, where 1601 was the coldest year in six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia.
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1601
Large portions of Russia received heavy rains in the summer of 1601, and by the end of the growing season it was clear that most crops would fail. This was later related to a major earthquake in Peru in 1600.
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1602
1603
In Russia agricultural failure in 1601 led to widespread starvation in both 1602 and 1603. It claimed the lives of an estimated 2 million people, or about one-third of the population, and more than 100,000 died in Moscow alone. Government inability to alleviate both the calamity and the subsequent unrest eventually led to the overthrow of Czar Boris Godunov, a defining event in Russian history.
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1612 Nov 4
Russia drove Catholic Poles and Lithuanians out of Moscow. This marked the end of the "Time of Troubles," a period of popular uprisings and fighting between noblemen and pretenders to the throne. Russian Orthodox Church celebrated this day as the victory of the forces of Eastern Orthodoxy over the forces of Western Catholicism. In 2005 Russia chose this day for the new “People’s Unity Day” holiday.
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1643
Piotr Golovin, the Cossack governor of Russia’s Yakutsk province, sent an expedition under Vasily Poyarkov into the far eastern Amur watershed. After 3 winters Poyarkov returned to Yakutsk with fewer than a quarter of his 160 men.
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1645 Jul 12
In Russia Michael Romanov (b.1596), the first RomanovTsar (1613-1645), died.
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1654 Jan 18
The union of Ukraine and Russia was announced at the Council of Pereyaslav, but no original documents have been preserved. A treaty invoked only protection of the Cossack state by the Tsar and was intended as an act of official separation of Ukraine from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
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1654
The earliest circular coin bearing the inscription "rouble" on it in Russia was struck by Czar Alexiei Mikhailovitch.
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1655 Aug 8
Eastern Lithuania was occupied by Russian and Cossack forces. Western Lithuania was occupied by Swedish forces. Following three days of pillaging Vilnius was burned in a fire the lasted 17 days.
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1655
1661
In Vilnius some 8-10 thousand residents were killed by occupying Russian forces.
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1666
Russia’s orthodox “Old Believers” split over liturgical reforms.
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1685 Jun
Qing Emperor Kangxi sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
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1686
Russians returned to Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of 900 alive.
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1689
Russian and Manchu delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was China’s first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up trade in exchange for Russia’s withdrawal from the Amur.
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1698
Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham's father was a local chief or a "prince". Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.
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1700 Jan 1
Russia replaced the Byzantine with the Julian calendar, which remained in effect until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1918.
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1709 Jun 27
[OS] Russians under Peter the Great defeated the Swedes under Charles XII and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava. [See July 8]. Ivan Mazepa, a Ukrainian Cossack, had sided with Sweden in a quest for Ukrainian independence.
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1709 Jul 8
[NS] Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, effectively ending the Swedish empire. [See June 28]. Ivan Mazepa, a Ukrainian Cossack, had sided with Sweden in a quest for Ukrainian independence.
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1714
In Northern Russia the Church of the Transfiguration was built by the Kizhi community on an island on Lake Onega. The wooden church with 22 onion domes was built without nails.
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1725
Czar Peter the Great chose Vitus Bering (44), a Danish seaman in the Russian navy, to lead an expedition to discover whether or not Asia was connected to America.
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1727 May 18
Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was proclaimed autocrat of Russia.
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1728 Feb 25
Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730) was crowned as czar of Russia.
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1728
Vitus Bering (47), Danish explorer in the Russian navy, discovered the Bering Strait between Asia and North America.
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1730 Jan 30
Peter II Alekseyevich (1715-1730), czar of Russia, died.
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1730
Empress Anna Ivanovna, Peter the Great's daughter, came to the Russian throne. She recalled Abram Petrovich Gannibal from exile and appointed him to a new post as a captain of military engineering.
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1732 Apr 17
The 2nd Kamchatka Expedition was announced in the Russian Senate and Vitus Bering was named as captain commander. I.K. Kirilov, chief secretary of the senate, expanded Bering’s mandate to include astronomical and scientific observations, to explore the seas between Siberia and Japan and to establish trade relations with peoples encountered.
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