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21000 BC
18000 BC
In 2008 researchers reported that DNA evidence indicated that 95% of native Americans had descended from 6 women of this period. It was believed that the women had lived in Beringia, a land bridge that stretched from Asia to North America during this time.
Links: DNA, AmerIndian, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
12300 BC
In 2008 scientists reported that fossilized human feces found in 8 caves near Paisley, Ore., dated to about this time. The coprolites contained DNA with characteristics matching those of living Amerindians.

Links: Oregon, AmerIndian, Anthropology, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
11000 BC
A mass extinction about this time occurred in parts of North America and coincided with the growing population of Indian hunters [see 10,900BC].
Links: AmerIndian, Extinction, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
11000 BC
In 2007 Alberto Nava, a California cave diver, and two Mexican dive budies discovered a human skeleton in a deep underwater cave in Mexico’s Yucatan jungle. In 2014 scientists said the skeleton was that of a young girl who probably fell into the cave about this time. DNA evidence linked her to modern native Americans.
Links: Mexico, AmerIndian, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
8024 BC
In 1976 scientists in southern California scientists unearthed skeletal remains dating to about this time. They were among the oldest ever found in the Western Hemisphere.
Links: California, AmerIndian, Anthropology, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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6000 BC
The Wappo Indians settle in the area northern California around Mt. Konocti 8,000 years ago. The eruption of Mt. Konocti millions of years earlier left a fissure in the earth through which ground water reaches the hot magma at 4,000 feet, and resurfaces as Indian Springs’ three thermal geysers at 212 degrees. The water rises through old sea beds adding rich mineral and salt traces.
Links: AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
6000 BC
The Hokan Indians preceded the Miwoks in Northern California.
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6000 BC
The Gabrielino-Tongva tribe lived in southern California about this time. Archaeologists in 2006 found their prehistoric milling area at the base of the Angeles National Forest estimated to be 8,000 years old.
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1500 BC
The Basketmaker culture of the Ancient Pueblo People began about this time and continued until about AD 500 with the beginning of the Pueblo I Era. In 2014 archeologists discovered an ancient village built during the Basketmaker period with 50-70 pit houses organized in rings on about 66 acres Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
Links: Arizona, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
200
1215
The Fremont people lived in Utah and etched into rock designs of animals and people.
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300
1300
The Anasazis inhabited the Canyon de Chelly and the Canyon del Muerto in northeast Arizona over this period.
Links: AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
600
1300
Pueblo Indians built their Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde (Colorado).
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750
Native peoples in southwest Colorado started building stone houses above ground, first one-story, then two.
Links: AmerIndian     More  Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
800
Ohlone Indians occupied the cliffs near Mussel Rock, later Daly City, Ca., beginning from about this time.
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1000
The Cahokia settlement in Southern Illinois numbered about 30,000.
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1000
In Montana polychromatic rock drawings were made at Weatherman Draw, also known as the Valley of the Chiefs.
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1000
1400
Indians inhabited an area at the junction of 2 creeks between Walnut Creek and Lafayette, Ca. A burial site was found there in 1904. In 2004 some 80 sets of human remains was found during the construction of the Hidden Oaks housing development.
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1050
An Anasazi trade center in New Mexico offered pottery, turquoise and buffalo meat.
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1150
A group of Anasazi villages in southwest Colorado were suddenly abandoned during a period of severe drought. In 2000 evidence showed that a raiding party had swept through the area, killed the inhabitants and ate their flesh.
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1170
Madoc, a Welsh prince, is reputed to have discovered America. Many believe that he and his followers initially settled in the Georgia/Tennessee/ Kentucky area, eventually moving to the Upper Missouri, where they were assimilated into a tribe of the Mandans. New evidence is also emerging about a small band of Madoc's followers who remained in the Ohio area and are called “White Madoc.”
Links: Wales, Ohio, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1200
The Anasazi in southwest Colorado began building their cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde about this time. The population thrived here for about 70 years making corrugated pottery and handsomely decorated black and white pottery.
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1250
The Anasazi in southwest Colorado fought a battle against unknown enemies. Number of kivas built greatly increased. Quality of workmanship in building decreased. People began to leave.
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1275
Indian settlers built a town called Atsina on top of El Morro (New Mexico).
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1300
The Anasazi Indian culture of the American southwest, some 15 to 20 thousand people, disappeared from the Four Corners region by this time. All the Anasazi were gone from Mesa Verde. They probably moved south and broke up into present-day Pueblo tribes. Anasazi means enemy ancestors in Navajo.


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1300
The Mississippian people, the largest pre-Columbian culture north of Mexico, built the earthen city of Cahokia about this time.
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1300
The Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian Nations settled the Colorado area.
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1300
A drought pervaded the southwest of North America.
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1350
The Fremont Indians, who had lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon since about 200, disappeared from the archeological record.
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1494 Feb 2
Columbus began the practice using Indians as slaves.
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1500
1530
The so-called Mantle site, a settlement on the North shore of Lake Ontario, was occupied by the Wendat (Huron). Excavations at the site, between 2003 and 2005, uncovered its 98 longhouses, a palisade of three rows (a fence made of heavy wooden stakes and used for defense) and about 200,000 artifacts. Scientists estimate between 1,500 and 1,800 individuals inhabited the site.
Links: Canada, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1520 Jul 14
Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
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1536 May
Jacques Cartier sailed for France from Canada and carried with him the kidnapped local chief Donnacona, who later died in France. Donnacona, prior to his death, described a mythical kingdom with great riches called Saguenay.
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1540 Mar 9
Hernando de Soto reached southern Georgia. He found the Indians there raising tame turkeys, caged opossums, corn, beans, pumpkins, cucumbers and plums.
Links: GeorgiaUS, USA, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1540 Oct 19
Hernando de Soto fought native Indians at the bloody battle of Mabila in present day Alabama.
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1541 May 8
Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River, which he called Rio de Espiritu Santo. He encountered the Cherokee Indians, who numbered about 25,000 and inhabited the area from the Ohio River to the north to the Chattahoochee in present day Georgia, and from the valley of the Tennessee east across the Great Smoky Mountains to the Piedmont of the Carolinas.
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1542 Nov 22
New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
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1559
1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. A Spanish settlement was founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl., but its exact location is a mystery.
Links: Spain, USA, Florida, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1565 Sep 20
A Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out some 350 Frenchmen at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the local botany. His alleged paintings of Indians living nearby were later thrown into question.
Links: Artist, Spain, France, Florida, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1566
Spanish conquistador Juan Pardo arrived the Spanish settlement at Santa Elena, on what later became known as Parris Island, South Carolina. He marched into the interior and founded Fort San Juan next to a Catawba town called Joara. Fort San Juan was burned down by the Catawba after about 18 months.
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1571 Feb 2
All eight members of a Jesuit mission in Virginia were murdered by Indians who pretended to be their friends.
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1604 Jun 26
French explorer Samuel de Champlain, Pierre Dugua and 77 others landed on the island of St. Croix and made friends with the native Passamaquoddy Indians. It later became part of Maine on the US-Canadian border.
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1607 May 24
Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers founded Jamestown on the mouth of the James River in Virginia. They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over. The colony was near the large Indian village of Werowocomoco, home of Pocahontas, the daughter Powhatan, an Algonquin chief. In 2003 archeologists believed that they had found the site of Werowocomoco, where Powhatan resided from 1607-1609.
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1607 May 26
Some 200 Indian warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Va. 2 settlers were killed and 10 seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ 3 moored ships.
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1607 Jun 15
Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown. Hostilities with the Indians ended as ambassadors said their emperor, Powhatan, had commanded local chiefs to live in peace with the English.
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1608 Jan
John Smith met with the Indian emperor Powhatan at Werocomoco on the Pamunkey River. He studied the Powhattan language and culture. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhatan’s leadership, they had conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Pocahontas was a Powhattan Indian girl of 10-11 years when she new Smith in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhattan’s leadership, they conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Before coming to Virginia, John Smith had served as a mercenary in Hungary and was wounded, captured and sold into slavery by his Turkish adversaries; he escaped by killing his owner.
Links: USA, Hungary, Virginia, AmerIndian     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1613
The colonists at Jamestown kidnapped Pocahontas and held her for ransom to force her father to free some English hostages and to return some stolen tools.
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1614 Apr 5
American Indian princess Pocahontas (d.1617) married English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe in Virginia. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians.
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1616 Jan 20
The French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
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1616
American Indian princess Pocahontas and her husband, Jamestown colonist John Rolfe, sailed to England with their infant son.
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1616
1619
An epidemic, possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. This helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
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1617 Jan 6
Pocahontas, American Indian princess, attended a court masque with King James I and Queen Anne.
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1617 Mar 21
Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. As Pocahontas and John Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia, she died reportedly of either small pox or pneumonia. In 2003 Paula Gunn Allen authored "Pocahontas "Medicine Woman, Spy, entrepreneur, Diplomat."
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1621 Oct
The first American Thanksgiving was held in Massachusetts' Plymouth colony in 1621 to give thanks for a bountiful harvest. 51 Pilgrims served codfish, sea bass and turkeys while their 90 Wampanoag guests contributed venison to the feast. After the survival of their first colony through a bitter winter and the subsequent gathering of the harvest in the autumn, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford issued a thanksgiving proclamation. During the three-day October thanksgiving the Pilgrims feasted on wild turkey and venison with their Native American guests. American Indians introduced cranberries to the white settlers. In 2006 Godfrey Hodgson, British historian, authored “A Great and Godly Adventure: The Pilgrims and the Myth of the First Thanksgiving.” American scholars quickly defied Hodgson’s allegation that there were no turkeys in the region.
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1622 Mar 22
The Powhattan Confederacy massacred 350 colonists in Virginia, a quarter of the population.
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1622
Powhattan Indians attacked the outlying settlements of Jamestown and destroyed the Henricus settlement.
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1628 May 1
A May festival in Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women.
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1630 Feb 22
Indians introduced pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
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1630 Jul 12
New Amsterdam's governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
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1632
The French explorer Etienne Brule was killed by the Huron Indians for unknown reasons.
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1636 Jun
Roger Williams and his followers founded Providence, Rhode Island, on land purchased from the Narragansett Indians. The settlement was governed by policies of democracy and religious tolerance.
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