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1762
The Nicholas Brothers Chair Manufactory operated in Westminster, Mass. In 1900 the firm moved to Gardner and around 1907 was renamed to Nicholas & Stone.
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1762
Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from London and remained until 1764.
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1763 Feb 10
Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years’ War, aka the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands including St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland.
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1763 Oct 7
George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
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1763
A Crown grant was made to Henry Laurens of Georgia, who later succeeded John Hancock as president of the Continental Congress in 1777. Laurens obtained control of the South Altamaha river lands and named it New Hope Plantation.
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1764
Half the slaves aboard the ship Sally, owned by the Brown family, died enroute to Rhode Island.
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1764
Brown University was founded in Rhode Island by the Brown family.
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1765 Aug 25
In protest over the stamp tax, American colonists sacked and burned the home of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1774 he was exiled to Britain. In 1974 Bernard Bailyn authored “The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson.”
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1765
James Smithson (d.1829), English scientist, was born. He later bequeathed his entire estate to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him. Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States in 1904 for interment in the original Smithsonian building.
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1765
More than 100 Africans perished on the slave ship Sally in the voyage from Africa. Some hanged themselves or starved to death. Some rebelled and were shot dead or drowned. In 2007 the ship's log book, detailing the deaths of slaves that occurred almost daily aboard the ship, was encased in glass in an exhibit at Brown University.
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1765
Shaw Furniture of Cambridge, Mass., was in business as early as this time and continued operating into the 1920s. During the 18th century Shaw made furniture using convict labor from Charleston State Prison.
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1766 Mar 5
Spanish naval Captain Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) arrived in Louisiana to take possession of the Louisiana Territory from the French. The French colonists refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768.
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1768
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US President (1801-1809), was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses.
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1768
The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal of the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere later crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two "Patriotic numbers" 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills, was inscribed with "Ninety-Two." The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation and the No. 45 issue of Wilkes’ North Briton newspaper.
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1769 Jul 16
Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcala, the 1st mission in Calif. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees. California’s first olive press was established in Ventura County in 1871. Serra went on to build nine missions along the coast and to take over tribal lands.
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1772 Apr 2
Father Juan Crespi looked out over a bay, later called Suisun Bay, and believed he had found the fabled Northwest Passage, a shortcut to the Colorado River. After Father Serra established a mission in Monterey, Ca, Pedro Fages and Father Juan Crespi had set out to explore the SF Bay by land.
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1772
In Maryland Ellicott City was founded as a mill town.
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1773
America’s first chamber of commerce was founded in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1912 the Chamber of Commerce of the USA was established.
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1774 Sep 5
The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in a secret session in Carpenter's Hall with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had been tearing at relations between the colonists and the government of King George III. The British taking singular exception to the 1773 shipboard tea party held in Boston harbor. The dispute convinced Britain to pass the "Intolerable Acts"- 4 of which were to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Va., chaired the 1st Continental Congress. Its first official act was a call to prayer.
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1774 Sep 26
John Chapman (d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in Massachusetts. A pioneer agriculturalist of early America, Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed.
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1774 Nov
Thomas Paine, English pamphleteer, arrived in Philadelphia. He had been urged to come to America by Ben Franklin.
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1774 Dec
Capt. Fernando Rivera y Moncada and 4 soldiers climbed Mount Davidson and proceeded north to Lands End.
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1774
Nicholas Cresswell, Englishman, arrived in the US and spent 3 years traveling and meeting prominent Americans of the time including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and British Gen. William Howe. Cresswell kept a journal and in 2009 it was published as “A Man Apart: The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell 1774-1781.”
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1774
Thomas Jefferson (31), US President (1801-1809), wrote the widely circulated "Summary View of the Rights of British America " and retired from his law practice.
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1774
Ann Lee, a Manchester Quaker, left for the New World and founded the Shaker movement. The Shakers had originated in England as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearance.
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1775 Feb
Englishman Thomas Paine became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, owned by printer Robert Aitken.
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1775 May 5
Benjamin Franklin arrived in Philadelphia from London where he had lived since 1764. He soon began working with Thomas Paine on a pamphlet urging independence from Britain, an idea proposed by physician Benjamin Rush.
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1775 May 10
The Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania. It named George Washington as supreme commander. Benjamin Franklin represented Pennsylvania soon presented his reworked Plan of Union under the title The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
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1775 Jun 17
The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill near Boston. It lasted less than 2 hours and was the deadliest of the Revolutionary War. The British captured the hill on their third attempt but suffered over 1,000 casualties vs. about 400-600 for the Americans. Patriotic hero Dr. Joseph Warren died in the battle. Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, "Don't one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" British casualties were estimated at 226 dead and 828 wounded, while American casualties were estimated at 140 dead and 301 wounded.
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1775 Oct 13
The U.S. Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet. The Continental Congress authorized construction of two warships. The 1st ship in the US Navy was the schooner Hannah. It was commissioned by George Washington and outfitted at Beverly, Mass. In 2006 Ian W. Toll authored “Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy.
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1775 Nov 10
The US Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.
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1775 Nov 13
American forces under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal. This was part of a two-pronged attack on Canada, with the goal of capturing Quebec entrusted to Benedict Arnold, who was leading a force through a hurricane ravaged Maine wilderness. In 2006 Thomas A. Desjardin authored “Through A Howling Wilderness,” an account of Arnold’s march to Quebec.
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1775 Nov 29
The American Congress formed the Committee of Secret Correspondence with the mission of corresponding with friends in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world. It April, 1777, its title was changed to Committee for Foreign Affairs. Members included Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Harrison, John Jay, Thomas Johnson and John Dickinson.
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1775 Dec 18
1775 Dec 27
In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Francis Daymon, members of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, met 3 times at Carpenter’s Hall with French agent Chevalier Julien-Alexandre Achard de Bonvouloir regarding French support for American Independence.
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1775
1781
The Royal Welch Fusiliers, a British regiment, was among the British troops that fought in the American Revolution during this period. In 2007 mark Urban authored “Fusiliers: the Saga of a British Redcoat Regiment in the American Revolution.
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1775
The 7th Virginia Volunteers first fought as militia in the War of Independence.
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1775
Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, called on local slaves to join the British side to suppress the American Revolution: “When we win we will free you from your shackles.” The British issued similar proclamations throughout their North American colonies and enticed thousands of indentured servants and slaves, known as Black Loyalists, to the British side.
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1776 Jan 10
Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published "Common Sense," a scathing attack on King George III's reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. The first 1,000 sold within days at 2 shillings. By the end of the year some 150,000 copies were sold, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
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1776 Mar 2
The American Secret Committee of Correspondence appointed Connecticut lawyer Silas Deane as a special envoy to negotiate with the French government for aid.
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1776 Mar 31
Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and a crew that included such names as Castro, Peralta, Bernal, Moraga, Alviso and Berryessa, among others, arrived at the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay on a 5-day expedition to explore the area.
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1776 Apr
Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, the French foreign minister, enlisted Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, playwright and French spy, to establish a commercial firm to supply America with arms, munitions and equipment.
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1776 Jun 12
Virginia's colonial legislature became the first to adopt a Bill of Rights. The Virginia Declaration of Rights granted every individual the right to life and liberty and to acquire and possess property. The Virginia document was written by George Mason and was a precursor to the Declaration of Independence. In 1787 Mason refused to endorse the US Constitution because it did not include a Bill of Rights.
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1776 Jul 1
The Continental Congress, sitting as a committee, met on July 1, 1776, to debate a resolution submitted by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee on June 7. The resolution stated that the United Colonies "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." The committee voted for the motion and, on July 2 in formal session took the final vote for independence.
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1776 Jul 1
The British fleet anchored off Sandy Hook in New York Bay.
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1776 Jul 4
The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock--President of the Continental Congress--and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the "Unanimous Declaration" inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, "There, I guess King George will be able to read that." referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Most delegates signed the parchment copy on August 2. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America. In 2007 David Armitage authored “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History.”
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1776 Jul 14
Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and 2 friends were kidnapped by a group of 5 Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky. They were rescued on July 16 by Daniel Boone and 7 other Boonesborough men.
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1776 Jul 27
Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.
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1776 Sep 6
The Turtle, the 1st submarine invented by David Bushnell, attempted to secure a cask of gunpowder to the HMS Eagle, flagship of the British fleet, in the Bay of NY but got entangled with the Eagle’s rudder bar, lost ballast and surfaced before the charge was planted. Sergeant Ezra Lee released the bomb the next morning as a British barge approached. The British turned back and the bomb soon exploded. A month later the turtle was lost under British attack as it was being transported on a sailboat.
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1776 Sep 11
An American delegation consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge met with British Admiral Richard Lord Howe to discuss terms upon which reconciliation between Britain and the colonies might be based. The talks were unsuccessful. In 2003 Barnet Schecter authored “The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution.”
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1776 Oct 13
Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9 months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy.”
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1776 Oct 29
Benjamin Franklin departed for France one month to the day after being named an agent of a diplomatic commission by the Continental Congress. He served from 1776-1778 on a three-man commission to France charged with the critical task of gaining French support for American independence.
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1776 Dec 5
Phi Beta Kappa was organized as the first American college scholastic Greek letter fraternity, at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. In 2005 the honor society had some 600,000 members with about 15,000 new members joining annually.
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1776 Dec 23
Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, “The American Crisis,” which included the line "These are the times that try men's souls…" was read out loud by George Washington to the Continental Army.
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1776
Spanish explorers encountered the native Havasupai Indians in Arizona.
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1776
The Quakers of Pennsylvania abolished slavery within the Society of Friends and then took their crusade to society at large by petitioning the state legislature to outlaw the practice.
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1777 Jan 15
The people of New Connecticut, a chunk of upstate New York, declared their independence. The tiny republic became the state of Vermont in 1791.
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1777 Jul 1
British troops departed from their base at the Bouquet river to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
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1777 Jul 4
No member of Congress thought about commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence until July 3 - one day too late. So the first organized elaborate celebration of independence occurred the following day: July 4, 1777, in Philadelphia.
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1777 Jul 8
Vermont became the 1st American colony to abolish slavery.
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1777 Sep 19
During the Revolutionary War, American soldiers won the first Battle of Saratoga, aka Battle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights). American forces under Gen. Horatio Gates met British troops led by Gen. John Burgoyne at Saratoga Springs, NY.
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