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1798 Mar 26
Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
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1798 Jul 16
The Marine Hospital Service was established in the Department of the Treasury under provisions of an act (1 Stat. 605) authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. In 1902 it was redesignated the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712),
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1798
The Massachusetts State House was built in Boston on land owned by patriot merchant John Hancock, It was designed by Charles Bullfinch (1763-1844), who later designed the US Capitol in Washington.
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1798
America’s first national survey of the housing stock was completed by the federal government in order to set property values for taxation.
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1798
US Vice President Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Congressman James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Jefferson became the active head of Republican Party. The Virginia Senate agreed to the Virginia Resolution on Dec 24.
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1798
In the Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson protested the Alien and Sedition Acts and maintained that "free government is founded in jealousy, not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power."
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1799 Apr 27
In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture signed a treaty of friendship with the US under Pres. John Adams. Certain elements were kept secret in order not to alienate France.
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1799 Dec 14
George Washington (b.1732), the first president of the United States, died at his Mount Vernon, Va., home. Richard Brookhiser authored "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." The Washingtons at this time had 317 slaves. His 5 stills in Virginia turned out some 12,000 gallons of corn whiskey a year. In 1993 Richard Norton Smith authored "George Washington and the New American Nation." In 2010 Ron Chernow authored “Washington: A Life.”
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1800 Jan 10
The US Senate ratified a peace treaty with Tunis.
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1800
Virginia congressman John Randolph described Edward Livingston of New York as follows: “He was a man of splendid abilities, but utterly corrupt. Like rotten mackerel by moonlight, he shines and stinks.”
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1801 May 14
The Pasha of Tripoli symbolically declared war on the US by cutting down the glagstaff in front of the US Consulate, after learning that Pres. Jefferson had refused to pay a renewed tribute of $225,000.
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1802 Feb 23
Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving as US Senator from New York and continued to 1803.
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1802
James Callender, an English-born journalist, published a report in the Richmond, Va., Recorder about Thomas Jefferson and his relationship with the slave Sally Hemmings [Hemings]. In 1997 Annette Gordon-Reed published: "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings, an American Controversy." DNA tests of descendants in 1998 indicated that Jefferson fathered at least one child with Hemmings, her youngest son Eston Hemmings in 1808. Dr. Eugene Foster, author of the DNA report, later said the DNA tests showed that any one of 8 Jefferson males could have fathered Eston. In 2008 Annette Gordon-Reed authored “The Hemmingses of Monticello: An American Family.”
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1802
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US President (1801-1809) said: “I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around the banks will deprive the people of all property - until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.”
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1802
1889
Juana Briones Y Tapia de Miranda was born in Santa Cruz, Ca. She was a battered wife and became the first California woman to get a divorce. Her family moved to the Presidio in 1812. She was the first to settle on San Francisco’s Powell St. in what is now North Beach and worked as a homeopathic doctor. In 1989 the Women’s Heritage Museum persuaded the state to authorize a plaque in her honor to be set in Washington Square.
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1803 Feb 24
The US Supreme Court ruled itself the final interpreter of constitutional issues. Chief Justice John Marshall, by refusing to rule on the case of Marbury vs. Madison, asserted the authority of the judicial branch. The US Supreme Court 1st ruled a law unconstitutional (Marbury v Madison).
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1803 May 25
Ralph Waldo Emerson (d.1882), American essayist and philosopher, was born. A biography of Emerson that includes information about his friends was written in 1996 by Carlos Baker and titled: "Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait." It includes such people as: the transcendental visionary Bronson Alcott, essayist Henry David Thoreau, mad poet Jones Very, activist Margaret Fuller, poet Ellery Channing. Other people included are Hawthorne, Melville, Theodore Parker, and the family of Henry James. "Money often costs too much."
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1803 Oct 2
Samuel Adams (b.1722), former Gov. of Mass. (1793-1797), died. He was a propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party. In 2008 Ira Stoll authored “Samuel Adams: A Life.”
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1803 Oct
The USS Philadelphia was captured by the Tripolitans. 307 sailors were held for ransom by the Pasha of Tripoli.
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1803 Nov 6
The sloop Washington, carrying at least five people, set sail from Niagara, Ontario and was soon caught in a fierce storm causing it to sink in Lake Ontario near Oswego, NY. In 2016 explorers found the shipwreck.
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1803
Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his 1st term as Mayor of New York City and continued to 1807. His 2nd term as mayor was from 1808-1810 and again from 1811-1815.
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1803
The Pinkster Ode was Dedicated To Carolus Africanus, Rex: Thus Rendered in English: King Charles, Capital-General and Commander in Chief of the Pinkster Boys in Albany, NY. Despite Pinkster’s Dutch origins, Africans in New York and New Jersey were so successful at incorporating their own cultures into the celebration that by the early 1800s Pinkster was actually considered an African-American holiday.
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1803
In Virginia the Alexandria Baptist Society was formed when members split from another church. A slave was soon baptized as its first black member. In 1818 the Alfred Street Baptist Church in Alexandria was founded.
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1804 Feb 6
Joseph Priestley (b.1733), English-born US writer, philosopher and chemist, died in Pennsylvania. He became best known for having discovered oxygen. Priestley also figured out how to manufacture carbonated water and is sometimes called “the father of the soft-drink industry.” In 2008 Steven Johnson authored “The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America.”
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1804 Jul 11
Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton (47), former first Treasury Secretary, in a pistol duel near Weehawken, N.J. A warrant for Burr’s arrest was soon issued in New Jersey and New York, where Hamilton died. In 1999 Richard Brookhiser wrote "Alexander Hamilton: American." In 2001 Joanne B. Freeman edited his writings and published: Alexander Hamilton: Writings."
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1804 Jul 12
Alexander Hamilton (47), US Sec. of Treasury, died in New York of wounds from a pistol duel in New Jersey with VP Aaron Burr. In 1920 Frederick Scott Oliver authored a Hamilton biography. In 2002 Stephen Knott authored "Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth." In 2004 Ron Chernow authored the biography "Alexander Hamilton." Lawyer Ambrose Spencer (1765-1848) said Hamilton “more than any man, did the thinking of his time.”
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1804 Aug 31
Lewis and Clark held a council with local Sioux Indian chiefs in what is now eastern North Dakota.
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1804 Oct 26
Lewis and Clark accepted an invitation to camp for the winter near a cluster of villages inhabited by the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians.
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1804 Nov 27
Pres. Jefferson issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun plotting an invasion of Texas. Jefferson ordered Gen. James Wilkinson to move federal troops into defensive positions between the Sabine River and New Orleans. Wilkinson, unbeknownst to Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico.
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1804 Nov
Lewis and Clark hired French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter, with the understanding that Sacagawea, who was only about 16 and pregnant, would come along to interpret the Shoshone language. She and another woman had been purchased by Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
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1805 Mar 4
Pres. Thomas Jefferson delivered his 2nd inaugural address.
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1805 Apr 7
Francis Wilkinson Pickens (d.1869), later Confederate governor of South Carolina, was born in South Carolina.
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1805 Apr 7
The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their journey to the headwaters of the Missouri River.
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1805 Jul 29
Alexis de Tocqueville (d.1859), French historian who wrote "Democracy in America, was born. "America is a land of wonders, in which everything is in constant motion and every change seems an improvement."
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1805 Aug 17
Sacagawea, while traveling with the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery, reunited with her brother Cameahwait, a Shoshoni Indian chief on the Lemhi River (Idaho).
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1805 Aug 30
The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their westward journey with 29 horses and 6 guides provided by Shoshoni Chief Cameahwait. They spent the next 4 weeks crossing the Bitterroot Mountains (Idaho).
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1805 Nov 7
Lewis and Clark vamped opposite Pillar Rock, between Brookfield and Dahlia, Washington, west of Jim Crow Point, in the estuary of the Columbia River.
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1805 Nov 15
Captain Meriwether Lewis and four men of the Corps of Discovery reached the Pacific Ocean near what is now Seaview, Washington. On November 18, Captain Clark and eleven men left Station Camp for their turn to view the Pacific Ocean.
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1805
The Philadelphia harbor was dredged with a high-pressure steam engine invented by Oliver Evans. He was unable to get a proper patent for it.
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1806 Mar 23
Explorers Lewis and Clark, having reached the Pacific coast, left Fort Clatsop, Oregon, and began their journey back East.
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1806 Mar 29
President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the National Road, the first federally financed interstate. Although it took decades to finish, the National Road helped open the land west of the Appalachians to settlers and commerce. It was later lengthened, paved and renamed U.S. 40, but was eclipsed in the 1960s by Interstate 70, a parallel superhighway.
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1806 Mar
Frederic Tudor arrived in the brigantine Favorite at a Martinique port with 130 tons of New England ice. An anticipated icehouse and his partners were nowhere to be found, so Tudor peddled the ice directly from the ship and convinced a local restaurateur to sell the previously unknown dessert, ice cream. Despite his efforts, Tudor lost $4,000 on the venture, the first of several setbacks throughout his rocky business career.
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1806 Apr
Nicolai Rezanov (42), a director of the Russian-American Co., arrived in SF aboard the Juno. He had proposed a California outpost to serve the Russian colonies in Alaska and sailed south to establish a settlement on the Columbia River but could not land there due to difficult seas. He sailed south to the Presidio at Monterey and negotiated a trade deal with Commander Jose Arguello. He also fell in love with Concepcion Arguello (d.1857), the daughter of Commander Arguello, and proposed marriage. He died that winter while crossing Siberia. In 2013 Owen Matthews “Glorious Misadventures: Nikolai Rezanov and the Dream of a Russian American.”
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1806 May 21
Nicolai Rezanov (1764-1806), a director of the Russian-American Co., departed SF for Sitka, Alaska. He died that winter while crossing Siberia.
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1806 Dec 6
The African Meeting House was dedicated in Boston. It was later used by Frederick Douglass and other prominent abolitionists to rail against slavery. In 1974 it was named as a National History Landmark. In 2011 a $9 million restoration was completed.
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1806
NYC Mayor DeWitt Clinton, having read the work of Englishman Joseph Lancaster, formed the New York Free School Society to found Lancastrian schools.
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1806
In Baltimore, Maryland, ground was broken for a cathedral designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Bungles and war delayed dedication until 1821. In 1937 Pope Pius XI elevated the cathedral to a basilica.
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1806
Noah Webster (1758-1843), a Connecticut schoolmaster, published a short dictionary. He then began work on a longer work: “An American Dictionary of the English language,” which was completed in England 1825 and published as a 2-volume set in 1828.
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1807 Aug 17
Robert Fulton’s "North River Steam Boat" (popularly, if erroneously, known to this day as the Clermont) began heading up New York’s Hudson River on its successful round-trip to Albany. It was 125 feet (142-feet) long and 20 feet wide with side paddle wheels and a sheet iron boiler. He averaged 5 mph for the 300-mile round trip. The boat was developed with business partner Robert Livingston.
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1807 Dec 14
A number of meteorites fell onto Weston, Connecticut.
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1807
The US Survey of the Coast formed. It later developed into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
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1807
1808
In South Carolina some 700 black people froze to death this winter in a warehouse near Charleston’s Gadsden Wharf.
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1808
John Randel Jr., the secretary, surveyor and chief engineer for New York City’s street commissioners, and his colleagues began drafting and executing the street grid plan for Manhattan.
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1809 Feb 12
Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the US, was born in Hardin County (present-day Larue County), Kentucky. Lincoln was president of the United States during one of the most turbulent times in American history. Although roundly criticized during his own time, he is recognized as one of history's greatest figures who preserved the Union during the Civil War and proved that democracy could be a lasting form of government. Lincoln entered national politics as a Whig congressman from Illinois, but he lost his seat after one term due to his unpopular position on the Mexican War and the extension of slavery into the territories. The 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates for the Senate gave him a national reputation. In 1860, Lincoln became the first president elected from the new Republican Party. Abraham Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. In 1996 a new biography of Abraham Lincoln by David Donald was published.
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1809 Jun 8
Thomas Paine (b.1737), British born political essayist, died in poverty and obscurity in NYC at age 72. His revolutionary essays included “Common Sense” (1776), "The Rights of Man" (1991/1792) and "The Age of Reason" (1794-1796), which he started while imprisoned in France. His body was exhumed in 1819 by William Cobbett, shipped to England, and kept in an attic trunk till Cobbett died in 1835. Parts of his skeleton were later said to be sold at auction. In 2006 Craig Nelson authored “Thomas Paine” and Harvey J. Kaye authored “Thomas Paine and the Promise of America.”
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1809 Dec
In Danville, Kentucky, Dr. Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830) performed a successfully surgery on Jane Crawford (45) in which he removed an ovary and a large tumor with no anesthesia. Crawford lived to age 78 and was the world’s first known survivor of an elective exploration of the abdomen and removal of an ovary. The story was later told by David Dary in “Frontier Medicine: From the Atlantic to the Pacific 1492-1941” (2008).
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1809
Boston’s Exchange Coffee House, which also contained a hotel and offices, opened and was said to be the largest building in the country. It burned down in 1818.
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1809
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US president (1801-1809) retired to Monticello, Va.
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1810
1813
Boston-based whalers slaughtered an estimated 150,000 fur seals on the Farallon Islands, 28 miles west of San Francisco. Russian hunters followed and occupied the islands for the next 25 years during which they wiped out the remaining fur seals. Fur seals began to return around 1977, but their first pup wasn’t born until 1996.
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1811 Jan 2
US Sen Timothy Pickering (1745-1829) of Massachusetts became the 1st US senator to be censured. He had revealed confidential documents communicated by the president of the US.
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