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1811 Jan 8
Charles Deslondes led several hundred poorly armed slaves towards New Orleans in the largest slave rebellion in US history.
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1811 Jan 9
The USS Revenge, a ship commanded by US Navy hero Oliver Hazard Perry ran aground on a reef off of Watch Hill, Rhode Island. Divers discovered the wreck in August 2005, but only made the news public in 2011.
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1811 Mar 20
George Caleb Bingham (d.1879), Missouri painter, was born in Virginia. His paintings included "Fur Traders on the Missouri."
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1811
The 1st rubber factory was established.
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1811
Manhattan adopted a street grid that allowed the island to be developed over time. It planned for a sevenfold expansion.

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1812 Feb 11
Massachusetts Gov. Elbridge Gerry signed a re-districting law that favored his party, giving rise to the term "gerrymandering." His district was shaped like a salamander.
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1812 Jun 16
City Bank of New York came into existence. A group of merchants had taken the first steps towards setting up a new bank in 1811 to help New York compete with rivals Philadelphia, Boston, and Baltimore. In 1976, under the leadership of CEO Walter B. Wriston, First National City Bank (and its holding company First National City Corporation) was renamed Citibank, N.A.
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1812 Aug
Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia John Coape Sherbrooke sent a naval force and 500 British troops to conquer Maine and re-establish the colony New Ireland. The Treaty of Ghent returned this territory to the United States and the British left in April 1815.
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1812
Nicodemus Havens authored his “Wonderful Vision of the City of New York,” wherein he was presented with a view of the Situation of the World, after the dreadful Fourth of June, 1812, and showing what part of New York is to be destroyed.
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1812
San Francisco Bay’s Red Rock Island was first mentioned by Russian fur traders. In 1826 it was charted by British Capt. Frederick Beechey.
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1813 Jan 24
Theodore Sedgwick (b.1746), arch-Federalist and former Massachusetts Senator (1796-1799), died. In 2007 John Sedgwick authored “In My Blood: Six Generations of Madness and Desire in an American Family.”
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1813 Feb 26
Robert R. Livingston (66), US diplomat (Declaration of Independence), died in Clermont, NY. He had helped Robert Fulton develop the "North River Steam Boat" (1807).
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1813 Oct 5
The Battle of Moraviantown was decisive in the War of 1812.

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1813 Oct 26
Canadian militia defeated American forces at the Battle of Chateauguay.
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1813 Nov 12
J. H. St. John de Crevecouer, French explorer and writer, died. He had spent more than half of his life in the New World and contributed two important concepts to the American consciousness. The first is the idea of the "American Adam," that there is something different, unique, special, or new about these people called "Americans." The second idea is that of the "melting pot," that people's "American-ness" transcends their ethnic, cultural, or religious backgrounds.
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1813
The Clark family of Paisley, Scotland, began manufacturing cotton thread. By the 1840s members of the family moved to the US and in 1866 developed a twisted cotton thread for sewing machines, which they named O.N.T. (Our New Thread).
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1813
Laws banning the carrying of concealed weapons were passed in Kentucky and Louisiana.
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1814 Jul 5
US troops under Gen. Jacob Brown and Gen. Winfield Scott defeated a superior British force under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall near the Niagara River at Chippewa, Canada. British casualties exceeded 500 compared to some 300 Americans.

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1814 Aug 14
British marines landed near the mouth of the Patuxent River in Maryland and began marching overland to attack Washington, DC.
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1814 Aug 24
5,000 British troops under the command of General Robert Ross marched into Washington, D.C., after defeating an American force at Bladensburg, Maryland. It was in retaliation for the American burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. Meeting no resistance from the disorganized American forces, the British burned the White House, the Capitol and almost every public building in the city before a downpour extinguished the fires. President James Madison and his wife fled from the advancing enemy, but not before Dolly Madison saved the famous Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington. This wood engraving of Washington in flames was printed in London weeks after the event to celebrate the British victory.
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1814 Sep 12
A British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane began the bombardment of Fort McHenry, the last American defense before Baltimore. Lawyer Francis Scott Key had approached the British attackers seeking the release of a friend who was being held for unfriendly acts toward the British. Key himself was detained overnight on September 13 and witnessed the bombardment of Fort McHenry from a guarded American boat.
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1814 Sep 12
The Battle of North Point was fought near Baltimore during War of 1812. British General Ross was killed by a sniper’s bullet in a skirmish just prior to the main battle. The battle proved to be strategic American victory, but since they left the field in the hands of the British, tactically it was a defeat for the Americans.
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1814 Sep 14
In the dawn light Francis Scott Key saw that the American flag still waved over Fort McHenry in Maryland during the War of 1812. He looked on from the deck of a boat on the Patasco River nine miles away and wrote “The Star Spangled Banner.” The lyrics were alter adopted to the British tune "To Anacreon in Heaven,” which had also served as Irish drinking song and a number of other songs. "The Star-Spangled Banner" was officially recognized as the national anthem in 1931. The seldom sung third verse says: “No refuge could save the hireling and slave from the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave.” The 40 feet long flag had been made by Baltimore widow Mary Young Pickersgill and her 13-year-old daughter just a month before the attack. In 1907 the flag was donated to the Smithsonian.
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1815 Aug 5
A peace treaty with Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria (Jun 30) and Tunis (Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
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1815
1848
This period in US history was later covered in the book “Waking Giant: American in the Age of Jackson” (2008), by David S. Reynolds.
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1815
Henry Opukahaia became the first Hawaiian to convert to Christianity. He had left Hawaii for Connecticut in 1808 but died before he could return. His conversion spurred the Protestant missionaries to come to Hawaii in 1820.
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1816 Mar 31
Francis Asbury (b.1745), English-born US itinerant Methodist minister, died in Virginia.
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1816 Jun 6
There was a 10" snowfall in New England in this "year without a summer". The oceanographer Henry Stommel and his wife Elizabeth described this year in their (1983) book “Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, The year Without a Summer.” The 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora lofted a cloud of ash that turned this summer into a virtual winter with snow in Europe and New England.
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1816
The Second Bank of the US was chartered. It over-lent wildly and then called in its money sparking financial panic. Pres. Jackson ended its special status in 1836.
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1817 Feb 14
Frederick Douglass (d.1895), "The Great Emancipator," was born in Maryland as Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He was the son of a slave and a white father who bought his own freedom and published “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass” (1845) a memoir of his life as a slave. "The life of the nation is secure only while the nation is honest, truthful, and virtuous."
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1817 Jul 1
Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his first term as governor of New York and continued to 1822.
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1817 Nov 10
The Tennessee legislature enacted laws that defined the common boundary with Georgia and created a boundary commission to jointly survey and mark the state border.
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1817 Dec 16
The Georgia legislature enacted laws that defined the common boundary with Tennessee and created a boundary commission to jointly survey and mark the state border.
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1817 Dec
The book “Northanger Abbey,” by English novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published following her death in July. It was written around 1798-1799 and revised in 1803.
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1818 Jan 1
An official reopening of the White House took place after being repaired from burning by British during War of 1812.
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1818 May 10
Paul Revere (b.1735) American patriot, died in Boston. Revere, best known for his midnight ride, fathered 16 children-eight by his first wife Sarah Orne and eight by his second wife, Rachel Walker. Born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, Paul Revere was one of 13 children.
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1818 Sep 12
Richard Gatling (d.1903), American inventor, was born. The Gatling gun, an early type of machine gun, was named after him.
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1818 Nov 5
Benjamin Butler (d.1893), later Union Civil War general, was born in New Hampshire.
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1818
The “Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin” (1706-1790), an unfinished record of his life, was published posthumously in London. An earlier French edition had appeared in 1791.
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1818
Brown Brothers Harriman (BBH) was founded in Philadelphia as John A. Brown and Company, an importer of linen. On January 1, 1931, Brown Brothers And Company merged with Harriman Brothers & Company, an investment company started in 1912 with railway money.
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1819 Mar 3
An Act to protect the commerce of the United States and punish the crime of piracy became a federal statute. It was amended in 1820 to declare the slave trade and robbing a ship to be piracy as well. The last execution for piracy in the United States was of slave trader Nathaniel Gordon in 1862 under the amended act.
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1819 Mar 6
The US Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the state could not impose a tax on the notes of banks not chartered in the state. Luther Martin represented Maryland in the landmark case.
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1819 Apr 19
The USS Alabama and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson's Town Raid on Breton Island, Louisiana.
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1819 Jul
Stephen Long joined Gen. Henry Atkinson's Yellowstone Expedition bound from St. Louis to the Rockies on the steamboat Western Engineer. This was the first steamboat to travel up the Missouri River into the Louisiana Purchase territory. Edwin James, a medical doctor, botanist and ethnologist, also served on the expedition.
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1819 Aug 25
Allan Pinkerton (d.1884) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He fled Scotland in 1842 to avoid capture for his involvement with the revolutionary group called the Chartists. In 1850 he founded the Pinkerton detective agency in Chicago and later worked as Abe Lincoln's bodyguard.
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1819 Aug 31
A naval battle took place between United States Revenue Cutter Service cutters and one of Jean Lafitte's pirate ships off southern Florida.
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1819
A crop failure in Henderson, Kentucky, ruined the gristmill and sawmill business of John James Audubon (34).
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1819
The American Geological Society was founded at Yale College. The membership included the illustrious Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864). The Society was short-lived, going out of existence in 1828.
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1819
1820
The James Long Expedition was an attempt to take control of Spanish Texas. Long successfully established a small independent government, known as the Republic of Texas (distinct from the later Republic of Texas created by the Texas Revolution). The expedition crumbled later in the year, as Spanish troops drove the invaders out. Long returned to Texas in 1820 and attempted to reestablish his control.
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1819
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) almost single-handedly created the University of Virginia and served as its first president. The university opened for classes in 1825.
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1819
The city of Vandalia was founded and began serving as the state capital of Illinois. The capital was moved to Springfield in 1839.
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1819
A recession hit the US. As farms prices dropped leveraged buyers went bust.
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1820 Jul 10
Captain Jairus of the USRC Louisiana captured four pirate ships off Belize.
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1820 Oct 12
John James Audubon boarded the steamboat Western Engineer in Cincinnati, Ohio, and embarked on a 5-year journey along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers collecting and painting birds.
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1820 Nov 20
Whalers from Nantucket, Mass., lost their ship to an 80-ton bull sperm whale and attempted to make landfall in 3 boats on the coast of South America. 8 crewmen survived after they consumed 7 of their mates. [see Owen Chase in 1821] 5 men in 2 boats were picked up after 90 days. In 1960 cabin boy Thomas Nickerson wrote an account of the tragedy. In 2000 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "In the Heart of the Sea, The Tragedy of the Whale Ship Essex."
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1820
1920
Some 6 million Irish people, 90% of them Catholic, immigrated to America.
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1820
In New Jersey a county poorhouse farm was established on 200 acres of land in what later became Hudson County, directly across the river from Manhattan. Be the end of the century it had become the sprawling Snake Hill complex with isolation hospitals and 3 burial grounds. In the 20th century it was renamed Laurel Hill. The institutions steadily emptied after the Depression and in 1950 the new New Jersey Turnpike ran through the site. In 2002 the New Jersey Turnpike Authority purchased the eastern burial ground of Snake Hill. Research soon revealed an estimated 3,500 burials on the purchased property, which became known as the Secaucus Potter’s field site. In 2003 the last burial was disinterred for a total of 4,571 sets of human remains from 2686 graves.
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1820
The Mexican government granted Luis Peralta (1759-1851) the 44,800-acre Rancho San Antonio in the East Bay of northern California, for his military services. The rancho ran from San Leandro Creek to a rise known as El Cerrito. Peralta settled in San Jose, while his four sons took over the land grant. The Peralta Hacienda in Oakland was built in 1870.
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1820
A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Indiana.
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1821 Feb 3
Elizabeth Blackwell (d.1910), first woman to get an MD from a U.S. medical school, was born in Bristol, England.
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