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1822 Aug
William Richardson (1795-1856) came to SF as first mate aboard the British whaler Orion. He jumped ship and began living at the Presidio. In 1835 he put up a tent in Yerba Buena, later renamed San Francisco, on Calle de la Fundacion, a site later identified as 827 Grant Ave.
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1822 Nov 2
The USRC Louisiana along with USS Peacock and the Royal Navy schooner HMS Speedwell captured five pirate vessels off Havana, Cuba.
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1823 Dec 2
President Monroe, replying to the 1816 pronouncements of the Holy Alliance, proclaimed the principles known as the Monroe Doctrine, "that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintained, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by European powers." His doctrine opposing European expansion in the Western Hemisphere insured that American influence in the Western hemisphere remain unquestioned. Former US Pres. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) helped Monroe shape the Monroe Doctrine.
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1823 Dec 23
The poem: “A Visit from St. Nicholas,” was published. The poem was first published anonymously in the Troy, New York Sentinel, and was reprinted frequently thereafter with no name attached. Authorship was later attributed to Clement Clarke Moore and the poem was included in an anthology of his works. His connection with the verses has been questioned by some. Recent scholarship reveals the original to have been written by Major Henry Livingston (1748-1828). The segment of the poem referring to reindeer reads: Now! Dasher, now! Dancer, now! Prancer, and Vixen, On! Comet, on! Cupid, on! Dunder and Blixem. Rudolph was added following the publication of Robert L. May's Christmas story in 1939.
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1823
The first New England missionaries arrived on Maui.
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1824 Mar 2
In the Supreme Court case of Gibbons v Ogden held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The Court found that New York's licensing requirement for out-of-state operators was inconsistent with a congressional act regulating the coasting trade. Gibbons had hired Cornelius Vanderbilt as captain of his boat, Bellona, which operated under a federal license.
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1824 Nov 5
Stephen Van Rensselaer established the Rensselaer School with a letter to Rev. Dr. Samuel Blatchford, in which he asked him to serve as the first president. The first engineering college in the U.S., Rensselaer School, opened in Troy, New York, on Jan 3, 1825. It later became known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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1824
The Second Bank of the United States, established by federal charter in 1791, was completed in Philadelphia by William Strickland. It was modeled after the Parthenon. From 1841-1934 it served as a Custom House. It was acquired by the National Park Service in 1939 and in 1974 became the home of the Peale portraits. The renovated museum reopened Dec 1, 2004.
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1824
Robert Owen (1771-1858), Welsh social reformer and mill owner, traveled to America to invest the bulk of his fortune in an experimental 1,000-member colony on the banks of Indiana's Wabash River, called New Harmony.
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1825 Jan 1
Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his 2nd term as governor of New York and continued to 1828.
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1825 Oct 9
The first Norwegian immigrants to America, sailing form Stavanger, arrived on the sloop Restaurationen.
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1825 Oct 26
The Erie Canal was opened in upstate New York. It cut through 363 miles of wilderness and measured 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep. It had 18 aqueducts and 83 locks and rose 568 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. The first boat on the Erie Canal left Buffalo, N.Y. after eight years of construction. At the request of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, the New York state legislature had provided $7 million to finance the project. The canal facilitated trade between New York City and the Midwest--manufactured goods were shipped out of New York and agricultural products were returned from the Midwest. As the canal became vital to trade, New York City flourished and settlers rapidly moved into the Midwest and founded towns like Clinton, Illinois. [see 1826] Gov. Clinton rode the Seneca Chief canal boat from Buffalo to New York harbor for the inauguration. In 2004 Peter L. Bernstein authored “Wedding of the Waters: The Erie Canal and the Making of a Great Nation.” In 2009 Gerard Koeppel authored “Bond of Union: Building the Erie Canal and the American Empire.”
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1825 Dec 28
US General James Wilkinson (b.1757) died in Mexico City. He was generally regarded as an American patriot, but historians in the 1850s found evidence that he had worked as a spy on behalf of Spanish officials while serving as governor of the Louisiana Territory (1805-1806).
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1825
The Hudson’s Bay Company planted grapes at Fort Vancouver (Washington State).
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1825
A financial panic ensued in the US and Europe following over-investment in mining firms in South America.
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1826 Jul 4
Thomas Jefferson, the nation's third president, died at age 83 at one o'clock in the afternoon and was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia. He was the founder of the Univ. of Virginia and wrote the state’s statute of religious freedom. In 1981 Dumas Malone, aged 89 and nearly blind, published "The Sage of Monticello," the sixth and final volume of his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Jefferson. In 1997 Joseph J. Ellis won the National Book Award in nonfiction for "American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson." "Nothing gives one person so much of an advantage over another as to remain unruffled in all circumstances."
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1826 Jul 8
Luther Martin (b.1748), Maryland lawyer and former delegate to the Constitutional Convention, died in NYC. In 2008 Bill Kaufman authored “Forgotten Founder, Drunken Prophet: The Life of Luther Martin.”
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1826 Aug 22
Colonies under Jedediah Strong Smith moved near Salt Lake Utah.
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1826 Nov 27
Jedediah Smith’s expedition reached San Diego, becoming the first Americans to cross the south-western part of the continent. He crossed the Mohave Desert and the San Bernadino Mountains from Utah.
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1826
John James Audubon (1785-1851), painter and ornithologist, arrived in Britain to oversee the production of his "Birds of America." Although the 1st engravings were done in Edinburgh the project was soon transferred to London and completed over the next 12 years.
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1826
Audubon read a technical paper before the Natural History Society of Edinburgh entitled: "Account of the habits of the turkey buzzard, particularly with the view of exploding the opinion generally entertained of its extraordinary power of smelling." [see K.E. Stager in 1964]
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1826
Englishmen scientist James Smithson (1765-1829) drew up his will and named his nephew as beneficiary. In the will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.
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1827 Feb 27
A Mardi Gras street procession in New Orleans was initiated by students, who were home from school in France. They formed a parade of masked marchers on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the period of penance begins on Ash Wednesday.
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1827
Roger Brooke Taney became attorney general of Maryland.
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1828 Feb 11
Dewitt Clinton (b.1769), American politician and naturalist. He had served as a US Senator, 2-time governor of New York state and 3-time mayor of NYC.
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1828 Apr 14
The first edition of Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language" was published. Webster had finished writing it in England in January, 1825.
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1828 May 6
The Cherokee Indians were forced to sign a treaty giving up their Arkansas Reservation for a new home in what later became Oklahoma. This led to a split in the tribe as one group moved to Oklahoma and others stayed behind and became known as the Lost Cherokees.
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1828
McKendree University, a private liberal arts college, was founded in Illinois.
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1828
Pres. John Quincy Adams helped Abdul Rahman Ibrahima, a former prince from Timbuktu, gain freedom following 40 years of enslavement on a cotton plantation.
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1828
Boston artist Sarah Goodrich (1788-1853) painted “Beauty Revealed: Self Portrait.”
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1829 Mar 4
An unruly crowd mobbed the White House during the inaugural reception for President Jackson, the 7th US President. The event was later depicted by artist Louis S. Glanzman in his painting “Andrew Jackson’s Inauguration” (1970).
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1829 May 8
Louis Moreau Gottschalk (d.1869), American pianist, was born in New Orleans.
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1829 Jun 27
James Smithson (b.1765), Englishmen scientist, died. His 1926 will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. In 2003 Nina Burleigh authored "The Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian." [see 1836]
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1829 Jul 4
In Boston, Mass., abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, from 1831-1865.
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1829 Oct 16
In Boston, Mass., the Tremont House, designed by Isaiah Rogers, opened as a hotel and continued to about 1895. The four-story, neoclassical building was the first modern hotel in America.
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1829 Nov 13
Sam Patch (~23), stunt diver, dove 125 feet from a platform at the Genesee Falls on Friday the 13th in Rochester, NY. His body was found the following March in the Genesee River ice. In 2003 Paul E. Johnson authored "Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper."
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1829
US Senator Daniel Webster appointed the first Senate page. The first US House page was appointed in 1842.
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1829
1877
This period in US history was covered by Walter A. McDougall in his 2008 book “Throes of Democracy: The American Civil War Era 1829-1877.”
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1829
William Cobbett, British writer, authored “The Emigrant’s Guide,” offering advice on settling in the New World.
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1829
Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877), NYC-based entrepreneur, began his own line of steamboats and rapidly branched out to trans-oceanic shipping and railroad building.
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1829
In Pennsylvania David G. Yuengling (d.1877), an immigrant from Germany, established the Eagle Brewery on Centre St. in Pottsville. As of 2016 the D.G. Yuengling & Son brewery was recognized as the oldest in the United States.
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1830 Apr 6
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized by Joseph Smith and five others in Fayette, Seneca County, N.Y. Joseph Smith (25) published the “Book of Mormon” in Palmyra, New York. He claimed that the manuscript was based on ancient golden plates revealed to him by the angel Moroni and written in the language of the Egyptians. The book records the journey of an ancient Israelite prophet, Lehi, and his family to the American continent some 2,000 years ago. [see 1827, 1831] Some 5,000 copies of the book were published. In 2014 Avi Steinberg authored “The Lost Book of Mormon: A Journey Through the Mythic Lands of Nephi, Zarahemla & Kansas City, Missouri.”
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1830
1837
Some 347 new banks were chartered in the US. The value of real estate rose 150%.
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1830
Pres. Andrew Jackson forced Thomas L. McKenney from his job as the 1st US superintendent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Jackson disagreed with McKenney’s opinion that “the Indian was, in his intellectual and moral structure, our equal.”
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1830
Pres. Jackson named Roger Brooke Taney as US Attorney General.
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1830
The Woolrich had its beginning when John Rich and his partner Daniel McCormick opened a woolen mill at Plum Run in Clinton County, Pa. In 1845 John Rich bought out all the shares of the business from McCormick and in 1852 took one of his three sons into the endeavor and the combine became known as John Rich and Son.
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1830
1840
In Maine the original Great Works Dam was built as a "wing dam," parallel to the shore, to provide water for sawmills. It was partially demolished around 1887, when a new dam was installed by the Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co., the first pulp mill on the river.
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1830
Chicago land sold for about $800 per acre (in 2012 dollars).
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1831
The New York City Marble Cemetery on Manhattan's Lower East Side was established.
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1832 Jul 10
President Andrew Jackson vetoed legislation to re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.
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1832 Aug
In Pennsylvania 57 Irish immigrants died of cholera after traveling there to build a railroad. In 2009 their bones were found at a woodsy site known as Duffy's Cut, named after Philip Duffy, who hired the immigrants from Donegal, Tyrone and Derry to help build the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad. In 2010 evidence indicated that at least some of the men’s remains showed signs of violence.
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1832 Dec 5
Andrew Jackson was re-elected US president and became the 1st president to win an election in which the turnout exceeded 50%. The US anti-Mason Party with William Wirt drew 8% of the vote against Henry Clay and the eventual winner, Andrew Jackson. Clay led the Whig Party which coalesced against the power of Andrew Jackson. The Whigs came from the conservative, nationalist wing of the Jeffersonian Republicans. The election served as a referendum on Jackson’s position against the 2nd Bank of the US.
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1832
The Pittsburgh riverfront home of coal baron Abraham Hays flooded. Hays built a new mansion, which later became a stop on the Underground Railroad, harboring slaves who traveled a tunnel from the Monongahela River to the vast brick-lined basement.
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1832
In Hampton, Conn., the Bevin Brothers Manufacturing Co. began making bells. A fire in 2012 destroyed the factory.
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1833 Jun 16
Lucie (Ruthy) Blackburn (30), a fugitive slave, escaped from jail in Detroit and made her way to Canada. The next day a riot erupted, “The Blackburn Riots,” as her husband, Thornton Blackburn (21), was escorted for return to slavery. Thornton escaped to Canada to join his wife. The first extradition case between the US and Canada over the issue of fugitive slaves soon followed. Canada ruled it could not extradite people to a jurisdiction that imposed harsher penalties then they would have received for the same offense in Canada and the Blackburns remained in Ontario.
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1833 Aug 11
Robert G. Ingersoll (d.1899), advocate of scientific realism and humanistic philosophy, was born in Dresden, NY. "Heresy is what the minority believe; it is the name given by the powerful to the doctrines of the weak." "The history of the world shows that when a mean thing was done, man did it; when a good thing was done, man did it." "Courage without conscience is a wild beast."
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1833 Aug 13
The Bank of the US under Nicholas Biddle began to contract its loans.
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1833 Sep 3
The first successful penny newspaper was published. Benjamin H. Day issued the first copy of "The New York Sun". By 1826, circulation was the largest in the country at 30,000. New York’s population was over 250,000, but its 11 daily newspapers had a combined circulation of only 26,500.
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1833
John James Audubon visited Canada’s Grand Manan Island off the southeast coast of New Brunswick to see herring gulls nesting in trees.
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1833
American Navy pensioners moved into what was then called the Naval Asylum, a 180-room stone building on the bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. The name was later changed to the Naval Home. It closed in 1977.
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