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1834 Jan
New of the failure of business houses and banks in Philadelphia, NY, and Washington heralded the newspapers.
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1834 Mar 28
The US Senate voted to censure Pres. Jackson for the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States. The Senate declared that Pres. Andrew Jackson: "in the last executive proceedings in relation to the public revenue, has assumed upon himself authority and power not conferred by the constitution and laws, but in derogation of both."
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1834 Apr 1
South Carolina Congressman James Blair shot himself at his lodgings in Washington DC after reading part of an affectionate letter from his wife, to Governor Murphy, of Alabama.
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1834 May 20
The Marquis de Lafayette (78), US Revolutionary War hero (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roche Gilbert du Motier), died in Paris, France. He was the 1st foreigner to address Congress. In 2002 Congress moved to make him an honorary US citizen. In 1983 Olivier Bernier authored “Lafayette, Hero of Two Worlds.” In 200 Harlow Giles Unger authored “Lafayette.”
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1834 Jun 30
Congress passed the final Indian Intercourse Act. In addition to regulating relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as "Indian country". This land was described as being "…all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas…" This is the land that became known as Indian Territory. Oklahoma was declared Indian Territory.
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1834 Jul 4
NYC Mayor Cornelius W. Lawrence presided over the laying of the cornerstone for the Astor House hotel, designed by Isaiah Rogers. Construction took four years and cost around $400,000.
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1834 Sep 16
The Bank of the US abandoned its policy of loan curtailment as Nicholas Biddle moved to secure a new charter from the state of Pennsylvania.
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1834 Nov
In NYC hundreds paid 50 cents to look at Afong Moy, the first Chinese woman to arrive in America.
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1834
Frederick Marryat authored the novel “Jacob Faithfully.” The term Shiver My Timbers!, an expletive denoting surprise or disbelief, was first seen in this book. It alluded to a ship's striking a rock or shoal so hard that her timbers shiver. In 1881, Robert Louis Stevenson found the term to be the perfect exclamation for the irascible Long John Silver: "So! Shiver me timbers, here's Jim Hawkins!" This stereotypical expletive became extremely popular with writers of sea yarns and Hollywood swashbucklers.
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1834
Roger Brooke Taney was nominated to the US Supreme Court.
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1834
Jose Bernal owned Rancho Rincon de Las Salinas y Potrero. It included the land that later became known as Hunters Point in San Francisco. La Punta de Conca (seashell point) was later purchased by Robert and Philip Hunter who arrived during the gold rush and bought the land to develop a town.
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1834
Tennessee withdrew the right to vote from free blacks.
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1835 Jun 25
William A. Richardson built the first structure in Yerba Buena, renamed San Francisco in 1847. In 1846 he was named captain of the port.
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1835 Jul 6
John Marshall, the 3rd chief justice of the US Supreme Court, died at the age of 79. Two days later, while tolling in his honor in Philadelphia, the Liberty Bell cracked. Marshall served on the court for 34 years.
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1835 Oct 6
The people of Michigan approved a new state constitution by a vote of 6,299 to 1,359. The constitution repudiated slavery and safeguarded personal liberty.
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1835
The San Francisco Bar Pilots company was formed.
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1835
The San Ysidro church was built on the outskirts of Santa Fe, NM. It was named after the patron saint of farmers.
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1835
Ohio and Michigan engaged in “The Toledo War” (1835–1836), also known as the Ohio-Michigan War, a bloodless boundary dispute that was settled in 1836.
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1835
The Paine Furniture Co. began operations in Boston, Mass. It later moved to Cape Cod changed its name to Paine’s Patio.
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1835
The New York Sun hired Richard Adams Locke, a Briton, as editor. He soon wrote an anonymous series about a new telescope and observations of the moon that included the mention of vast forests, fields of poppies and lunar animals. Circulation soared to 19,360. In 840 he admitted to writing the moon hoax series. In 2008 Matthew Goodman authored “the Sun and the Moon: The Remarkable True Account of Hoaxers, Showmen, Dueling Journalists, and Lunar Man-Bats in Nineteenth-Century New York.”
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1835
Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville (25) wrote "Democracy in America." He had been dispatched by the French government to study America’s penal system. His book predicted that henceforth equality would always increase everywhere, and justice be thereby served in the life of mankind. He also foresaw that democratic man, no longer protected by traditional institutions, found himself in danger of being exposed to the absolute tyranny of the state that he himself had created, i.e. a case of totalitarianism. He also predicted that the extremes of social diversity would be lost and that more human beings would tend to cluster around a central norm. He stated that: "Americans of all ages, all conditions and all dispositions constantly form associations." In 1938 George Wilson Pierson wrote "Tocqueville in America."
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1835
William A. Richardson built the first structure in SF and was named captain of the port of SF.
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1836 Jan 16
The Galena & Chicago Union Railroad was chartered to connect Chicago with the lead mines at Galena.
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1836 Feb 23
The Alamo was besieged by Santa Anna. Thus began the siege of the Alamo, a 13-day moment in history that turned a ruined Spanish mission in San Antonio, Texas, into a shrine known and revered the world over. In 2012 James Donovan authored “The Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day Struggle for the Alamo – and the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation.
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1836 Feb 27
Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of San Patricio.
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1836 Mar 2
Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of Agua Dulce.
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1836 Mar 6
The Alamo fell after fighting for 13 days. Angered by a new Mexican constitution that removed much of their autonomy, Texans seized the Alamo in San Antonio in December 1835. Mexican president General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marched into Texas to put down the rebellion. By late February, 1836, 182 Texans, led by Colonel William Travis, held the former mission complex against Santa Anna’s [3,000] 6,000 troops. At 4 a.m. on March 6, after fighting for 13 days, Santa Anna’s troops charged. In the battle that followed, all the Alamo defenders were killed while the Mexicans suffered about 2,000 casualties. Santa Anna dismissed the Alamo conquest as "a small affair," but the time bought by the Alamo defenders’ lives permitted General Sam Houston to forge an army that would win the Battle of San Jacinto and, ultimately, Texas’ independence. Mexican Lt. Col. Pena later wrote a memoir: "With Santa Anna in Texas: Diary of Jose Enrique de la Pena," that described the capture and execution of Davy Crockett and 6 other Alamo defenders. In 1975 a translation of the diary by Carmen Perry (d.1999) was published. Apparently, only one Texan combatant survived Jose María Guerrero, who persuaded his captors he had been forced to fight. Women, children, and a black slave, were spared.
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1836 Mar 12
Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of Refugio.
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1836 Mar 13
Refugees from the Alamo arrived in Gonzales, Texas, and informed Gen. Sam Houston of the March 6 fall of the Alamo. Houston immediately ordered a retreat.
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1836 Mar 17
David G. Burnet (1788-1870) became interim president of Texas and continued to Oct 22, 1836. he became the second Vice President of the Republic of Texas (1839-41), and Secretary of State (1846) for the new state of Texas after it was annexed to the United States of America.
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1836 Mar 20
At Coleto Creek, Texas, Colonel James Fannin after being surrounded by Mexican forces under General Urrea, agreed to surrender to Colonel Juan Jose Holzinger. Fannin was unaware that General Santa Anna had decreed execution for all rebels. Urrea negotiated the surrender "at the disposal of the Supreme Mexican Government," falsely stating that no prisoner taken on those terms had lost his life.
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1836 Mar 26
Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
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1836 Mar 27
Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla executed his Texan prisoners at Goliad. Colonel Portilla had the 342 Texians marched out of Fort Defiance into three columns. The Texians were then fired on at point-blank range. The wounded and dying were then clubbed and stabbed. Those who survived the initial volley were run down by the Mexican cavalry.
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1836 Apr 21
Some 910 Texians led by Sam Houston, the former governor of Tennessee, defeated the Mexican army under Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at San Jacinto. The victory in the 18 minute battle sealed Texan independence from Mexico. Houston counted 9 fatalities. 630 Mexicans were killed out of some 1,250 troops. Some 700 were taken prisoner.
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1836 May 19
Comanche warriors in Texas attacked Fort Parker and kidnapped Cynthia Ann Parker (9) and several others. She was recaptured by whites in 1860 and was forced to live among whites until her death in 1871. Her son Quanah (d.1911) escaped capture and grew up to become leader of the Quahadi, the most feared subset of the Comanche. In 2010 S.C. Gwynne authored “Empire of the Southern Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.”
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1836 Jun 1
In NYC the doors of the luxurious Astor House hotel opened to the public. It was a near copy on a grander scale of the earlier, fashionable Trement House in Boston, also designed by Isaiah Rogers.
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1836 Jul 4
Jacob Leese, a trader from Ohio, built a house in Yerba Buena (later San Francisco). This was the town’s first building and Leese threw a 3-day party over the 4th of July to celebrate.
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1836 Jul 4
In Yerba Buena (later San Francisco) Jacob Leese, a trader from Ohio, threw a 3-day party over the 4th of July. Leese of Ohio had established a mercantile business at Grant and Clay streets. His wooden house next door was the first in Yerba Buena. He soon married a daughter of Gen’l. Vallejo and their daughter, Rosalie Leese, was the first non-native born in Yerba Buena.
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1836 Jul 11
Pres. Jackson, alarmed by the growing influx of state bank notes being used to pay for public land purchases, issued the Specie Circular shortly before leaving office. This order commanded the Treasury to no longer accept paper notes as payment for such sales. This led to the financial panic of 1837.
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1836 Sep 14
Aaron Burr, the 3rd US Vice President, died. He had served as vice-president under Thomas Jefferson. Burr is alleged to have fathered a black illegitimate son named John Pierre Burr. In 1999 Roger W. Kennedy authored "Burr, Hamilton and Jefferson: A Study in Character." In 2007 Nancy Isenberg authored “Fallen Founder: The Life of Aaron Burr.”
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1836 Sep 16
Morocco signed a Treaty of Peace with the United States at Meccanez. A clause of conclusion under the seal of the United States consulate at Tangier, was signed by James R. Leib, consul and agent of the United States, on October 1, 1836.
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1836 Nov 4
Don Juan Alvarado and a group of followers forced the surrender of Lt. Col. Nicolas Gutierrez, the military governor of Monterey. They quickly drafted a constitution and proclaimed California independent of Mexico. Officials in southern California refused to recognize Alvarado's government and he agreed to make California a territory of Mexico with himself as governor.
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1836
The US Congress, led by congressman and former president J.Q. Adams, voted to accept the 100,000 gold sovereign donation of Englishman James Smithson and establish the Smithsonian Institution for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. The actual Institution was not established until 1846.
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1836
Roger Brooke Taney was confirmed as US Chief Justice.
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1836
In Boston a small group of New England intellectuals began gathering at the home of minister George Ripley to discuss issues of religious and philosophical importance. The group, known as the Transcendental Club, disbanded in 1840. In 2007 Philip F. Gura authored “American Transcendentalism: A History.”
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1836
Three Chicago commissioners wrote that what is now Grant Park should be “Public Ground – A Common to Remain Forever Open, Clear and Free of any Buildings, or other Obstruction Whatever.” Aaron Montgomery Ward later used this statement to keep developers off the 320-acre lake-front property.
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1837 Jul 31
William Clarke Quantrill (d.1865), Confederate guerrilla leader, was born at Canal Dover, Ohio.
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1837
Reverend George Bush published “The Life of Mohammed, founder of the religion of Islam and of the Empire of the Saracens.” It described the Prophet as an "imposter" and Muslims as "locusts." In 2005 Egyptian newspapers announced that the highest authority in Sunni Islam had approved publication of the book. In 2005 the US administration said the author was "a distant relative of the current president, five generations removed.
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1837
1844
Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall published their 3-volume work: “The Indian Tribes of North American.”
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1837
John Marsh (1799-1856), Harvard graduate and Minnesota Indian agent, bought Rancho de Los Meganos east of Mount Diablo and became the 1st American in the San Joaquin Valley. He purchased the Rancho Los Meganos from Jose Noriega for $300 in cowhides. The land stood where the hills of Contra Costa met the San Joaquin Valley. He built a stone Gothic mansion in 1856. In 2002 plans were made to restore the Marsh House.
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1837
The Procter & Gamble Company was formed in Cincinnati, Ohio. William Procter and James A. Gamble built a business manufacturing soap and candles from the tallow produced by the city’s thriving meat packing industry. In 2004 Davis Dyer, Frederick Dalzell and Rowena Olegario authored “Rising Tide,” a history of Procter and Gamble.
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1837
1863
More than 700 US banks could issue their own notes during this period and as many as one-third of all bills were fake.
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1837
Artist Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874) accompanied British Capt. William Drummond Stewart on a hunting expedition to the Rocky Mountains. In October 1840 Miller traveled with his paintings to Stewart's Murthly Castle in Scotland, where a collection of his commissioned work was ultimately hung. Miller later settled in Baltimore, Md., painting portraits.
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1838 Jan 6
Samuel Morse (1791-1872) first publicly demonstrated his telegraph, in Morristown, N.J. In 2003 David Paul Nickles authored "Under the Wire," a history of the telegraph and its impact on the world.
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1838 Apr 23
The British steamship "Great Western" arrived in NYC on its maiden voyage from Bristol, England, just hours after the retrofitted steamship Sirius, which had departed Cork on April 4. The Great Western crossed the Atlantic in a record 15 days and 12 hours.
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1838 Jul 11
John Wanamaker (d.1922), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, was born.
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1838 Oct 24
Joseph Lancaster (b.1778), English educator, was fatally injured by a runaway horsedrawn carriage in NYC.
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1838
A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Tennessee and Virginia.
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1838
In California an earthquake, estimated at magnitude 7.7 -7.9, hit two miles off the coast of San Francisco.
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1838

Maryland’s Jesuits sold 272 slaves to pay off debts for Georgetown Univ. located in Washington DC. In 2016 the school introduced a set of measures that included an initiative offering preferential admission status to descendants of those held in slavery by the university.

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