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49Mil BC
The Ambulocetus natans, a walking and swimming whale, inhabited the warm seas which covered eastern Pakistan. In 1996 fossils of the creature, about the size of a modern sea lion, were found by paleontologist Hans Thewissen.
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47.5Mil BC
Fossils of whales dating to this time were found in Pakistan in 2000 and 2004. The fossil of a pregnant female indicated that these whales gave birth on land.
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7000 BC
5
500BC In 2006 researchers found evidence of drilled teeth in a Pakistani graveyard.
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2300 BC
2000 BC
There was cultural exchange between the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley, or Harrapan, civilization was discovered in 1920-21 when engraved seals were discovered near present-day Sahiwal in Pakistani Punjab at a place called Harappa.
Links: India, Pakistan, Language, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
632
661
The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
Links: Azerbaijan, Qatar, Armenia, Iraq, Turkey, UAE, Pakistan, Cyprus, Libya, Iran, Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Sudan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Afghan, Tunisia, Islam     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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700
900
The Hadith, the main guide for Muslims in interpreting the Koran, were evaluated and gathered into large collections mostly during the reign of Umar ibn AbdulAziz during the 8th and 9th centuries.
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1274
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (b.1177), born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (then part of Iran), died in Sindh (later part of Pakistan). He had migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He was a Shia Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
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1831
Muslim warrior Sayeed Ahmad Shaheed was slain in Balakot while failing to repel Sikh invaders.
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1831
Sayyid Ahmad of Rai Bareilly (b.1786), Islamic warrior, died in a battle against the Sikhs. Sayeed Ahmad Shaheed was slain in Balakot (later part of Pakistan) while failing to repel Sikh invaders.
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1847
The town of Jacobabad in Sindh (later part of Pakistan) was founded by British Gen. John Jacob.
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1849
Britain annexed the Punjab, the vast territories of what later became known as eastern Pakistan and northern western India. This put them on the edge of the tribal territories, mostly claimed by Afghanistan, and forced them to launch military campaigns almost every year for the next half century to keep the tribes at bay.
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1861
In India the Murree Brewery Co. Ltd. was founded by British colonialists. It became a listed company in 1902. In 1947 it came under the control of Pakistan.
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1876 Dec 25
Mohammed Ali Jinnah (d.1948), founder of Pakistan (1947), gov. (1947-58), was born in Karachi.
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1915 Jan 7
In North Waziristan British Capt. Eustace Jotham (31) of the VC. 51st Sikhs and North Waziristan Militia, was killed while trying to rescue an Indian comrade at Khaisora.
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1920
1921
The Indus Valley, or Harrapan, civilization was discovered when engraved seals were discovered near present-day Sahiwal in Pakistani Punjab at a place called Harappa.
Links: India, Pakistan, Language     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1924
Archeologists identified a writing system they called the Indus Valley Script.
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1933
Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a student at Cambridge, coined the name Pakistan 14 years before the country came into existence. It was an acronym derived from the regions Punjab, Afghan province (later Khyber Pakhtunkkhwa), Kashmir, Sindh and the final letters of Balochistan. The name is also said to be product of two words in Urdu and Persian: stan and pak, which together mean “land of the pure.”
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1935 May 31
In Quetta, India (later Pakistan), a magnitude 7.5 earthquake killed some 50,000 people. The earthquake flattened Quetta, killing an estimated 26,000 people in the city alone, more than half its population.
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1936
1947
Mirza Ali Khan (d.1960), a Wazir of North Waziristan known as the Faqir of Ipi, led a freedom struggle that at one point sucked in some 40,000 British Indian troops. The struggle was only quelled by brutal aerial bombing.
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1943
Bangladesh, while still part of Pakistan, experienced a famine.
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1947 Jun 3
In Britain an announcement was made in the House of Commons that India was to be partitioned and that independence would follow. In 2007 Yasmin Khan authored “The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan.” In 2015 Nisid Hajari authored “Midnight’s Furies: The Deadly Legacy of India’s Partition.”
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1947 Aug 15
India gained independence after some 200 years of British rule. Britain partitioned the subcontinent. Prior to independence, 565 princes ruled a third of India. After independence the government let the royals retain their titles and assets in return for incorporating their principalities into the new nation. The 664 princely states of India were given the choice of which country they wanted to join. Although most of the people of Kashmir were Muslim, the maharaja was Hindu and he appealed to India for help. Independence in Pakistan and India led to bloody conflicts and thousands died. In 1999 Fareed Zakaria published "Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India." In 2006 David Gilmour authored “The Ruling Caste,” an account of Britain’s Indian Civil Service (ICS).
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1947
At the time of India’s partition and the creation of Pakistan, many Muslim Biharis moved to what was then East Bengal. In 1971, when war broke out between West Pakistan and East Pakistan (or Bangladesh), the Biharis, who mostly considered themselves Pakistani, sided with West Pakistan.
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1947
Britain withdrew from India. Pakistan was carved out of Indian and Afghan lands.
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1947
A force of Wazirs and Mehsuds was dispatched to seize Kashmir for the newly formed Islamic republic of Pakistan, sparking the first Indo-Pakistan war.
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1948 Sep 11
Mohammed Ali Jinnah (b.1876, 1st governor of Pakistan (1947-48), died.
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1948
Govindas Vishnoodas Desani (1909-2000), Kenya-born Pakistani writer in England, authored “All About Hatterr,” his novel of an absurdist and mystical odyssey in India. In 1968 he was invited to teach at the Univ. of Texas and spent 11 years there.
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1948
Pakistan established its Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to protect the country against foreign and domestic security threats.
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1951 Oct 16
Pakistan’s PM Liaquat Ali Khan (b.1896), son of a Punjabi prince, was assassinated in Rawalpindi, ushering in a period of political instability.
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1953 Aug 10
American mountain climber Art Gilkey (b.1926) was swept away by an avalanche on Pakistan’s K2. In 1993 his remains were brought down by mountaineer Roger Payne (1956-2012).
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1953
The first attempt to scale K2, the world’s 2nd tallest mountain, was made by 7 Americans led by Charles Houston and Robert Bates. The mountain straddled China and Pakistan. In 1954 they authored “K2: The Savage Mountain.
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1953
In Pakistan Nanga Parbat, an 8,126-meter (26,660-foot) peak in the Himalayas, was scaled for the first time. It was nicknamed Killer Mountain” because thirty climbers had died trying to scale it prior to this.
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1954 Apr
In Pakistan the government issued the Munir Report, an eloquent expression of the state’s position on religion. This was made in response to Muslim leaders in the Punjab who agitated in 1953 to have a rival group declassified as Muslims.
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1954 Jul 31
Italians Lino Lacedelli (1925-2009) and Achille Compagnoni (1915-2009) first scaled Pakistan’s K-2, the world's second-highest mountain. In 2004 Lacedelli authored “K2: The Price of Conquest.”
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1954 Sep 8
SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), a sister organization to NATO, was created under the Manila Pact by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, to stop communist spread in Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos). The United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand signed the mutual defense treaty. SEATO dissolved in 1977.
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1956
Khushwant Singh (1915-2014), Indian lawyer and journalist, authored "Train to Pakistan," a short, powerful novel about the horrors of partition, when colonial India was carved into modern India and Pakistan and about 1 million people died amid the chaos. It became a classic.
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1958 Oct 7
In Pakistan President Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution and declared Martial Law in the country. Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan was named chief martial law administrator.
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1958 Oct 27
In Pakistan Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan carried out the country’s first military coup. He announced that "our ultimate aim is to restore democracy but of the type that people can understand." Corruption had become so widespread within the national and civic systems of administration that Ayub Khan was welcomed as a national hero by the people. This launched more than a decade of military rule.
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1959
The process of “investor-state dispute settlement” (ISDS) first appeared in a bilateral trade agreement between Germany and Pakistan.
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1960 Sep 19
India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty.
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1960
Islamabad was designed as the forward capital of Pakistan to replace Karachi. Islamabad and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi stand side by side, displaying the country’s past and present.
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1963
Islamabad replaced Karachi as the capital of Pakistan.
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1966 Jan 10
The Tashkent Agreement, was signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent, and officially ended a 17-day war between Pakistan and India. It required that both sides withdraw by February 26, 1966, to positions held prior to August 5, 1965, and observe the cease-fire line agreed to on June 30, 1965. The agreement was brokered by Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin and signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan. The Indian prime minister died the day after signing the agreement.
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1967
The Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) was formed under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
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1968
Baba Hassan Din, English convert to Sufism, died in Lahore, Pakistan. In the 1950’s he had adopted a boy named Hafiz Iqbal, and raised him to be a scholar. Both were later recognized as Sufi saints.
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1969
1971
Gen. Yahya Khan led Pakistan’s military regime. “US Pres. Richard Nixon was fond of Gen. Yahya Khan, a gruff, dim-witted, whiskey drinking general.”
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1970 Jun 28
1970 Jun 29
Reinhold and Gunther Messner of Tyrol, Italy, reached the 26,650-foot peak of Nanga Parbat in northern Pakistan. Gunther (24) died during the descent. In 2005 Reinhold retrieved his brother’s remains.
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1970 Dec 7
In Pakistan polling began for 300 seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League, led by Sheik Mujibur Rahman, emerged as the single largest party in the National Assembly by winning 160 seats. It was also able to win 288 out of 300 seats in the East Pakistan Assembly. However, the party failed to win even a single seat in the four Provincial Assemblies of West Pakistan. The Pakistan People’s Party, led by landlord Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, won a majority in West Pakistan. Mr. Bhutto and military leader, Gen. Yahya Khan, refused to honor the results.
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1970
Chester Bowles (1901-1986), former governor of Connecticut and US ambassador to India and Nepal (1951-1953), wrote a piece in the NY Times titled “Will We Ever Learn in Asia.” Here he outlined America’s alliance with Pakistan and prophesied that contradictions underlying the alliance would harm vital American interests.
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1971 Mar 21
Sheik Mujibur Rahman (Mujeeb-ur Rehman), head of the Awami League, declared East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) independent of Pakistan. Pakistani Pres. Yahya Khan ordered the army in; several million East Bengali refugees fled to India. Rahman was the father of later PM Hasina Wajid.
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1971 Mar 25
Sheik Mujibur Rahman was arrested in Dhaka. Pakistani forces started Operation Searchlight, a systematic plan to eliminate any resistance. Thousands of people were killed in student dormitories and police barracks in Dhaka.
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1971 Mar 27
PM of India, Indira Gandhi, expressed full support of her government to the Bangladeshi struggle for independence. The Bangladesh-India border was opened to allow the Bangladeshi Refugees safe shelter in India.
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1971 Aug 20
Pakistani pilot Rashid Minhas (b.1951) foiled attempts by his instructor to defect with an air force plane to archrival India. To stop the escape, Minhas disabled the controls of the plane the two were flying, and died in the resulting crash.
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1971 Oct 19
Pakistani soldiers attack a village in Netrokona district of Bangladesh. At least 7 people were killed.
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1971 Nov 22
Guerrilla fighting escalated on the border of East Pakistan. India massed 12 divisions near the border.
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1971 Dec 3
The 3rd Indo-Pakistani war began when India under Indira Gandhi intervened in the Pakistani civil war. Pakistan attacked Indian airfields and India mobilized its army after nearly 10 million refugees poured into India. The India-Pakistani civil war ended with independence for East Pakistan, which became known as Bangladesh.
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1971 Dec 6
India recognized the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off diplomatic relations. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
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1971 Dec 6
Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war in a struggle led by Sheik Mujibar Rahman. Sheik Rahman was nominated as president on Dec 20 and released from prison on Dec 22; he returned to Bangladesh Jan 10.
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1971 Dec 16
Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the allied forces of India and Bangladesh, jointly known as the Mitro Bahini. Bangladesh gained independence. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
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1971 Dec 17
A cease fire began between India and Pakistan in East Pakistan.
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