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180Mil BC
Sediments of this time from a deep sea habitat teeming with life were later pushed up into what became known as the Glasenbach Gorge in the Austrian Alps.
Links: Austria, HistoryBC     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
25000 BC
In 2005 archaeologists in northern Austria reported finding the remains of two newborns dating back 27,000 years while excavating a hillside near Krems. The newborns were buried beneath mammoth bones and with a string of 31 beads, suggesting that the internment involved some sort of ritual.
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4800 BC
4600 BC
More than 150 large temples, constructed between during this period, were un-earthed in fields and cities in Germany, Austria and Slovakia in 2002-2005. A village at Aythra, near Leipzig in eastern Germany, was home to some 300 people living in up to 20 large build-ings around the temple.
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3300 BC
German hikers Erica and Helmut Simon found a well-preserved prehistoric corpse, dated to about this time. He was later named Oetzi (Frozen Fritz). He was found on Sep 19, 1991, in a glacier on the Hauslabjoch Pass, about 100 yards from Austria in northern Italy. It was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis. A flint arrow was also found in his back. In 2007 forensic researchers said he died either from hitting his head on a rock when he passed out or because his attacker hit him in the head.
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1000 BC
A Bronze Age salt mine of this time in Hallstatt, Austria, had a pine and spruce staircase that survived into the 21st century.
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193 Apr 9
The distinguished Roman soldier Lucius Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by the army at Carnuntum (Austria).
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311
In Austria a Roman gladiator school flourished at Carnuntum 28 miles (45 km) east of Vienna. This was a major military and trade outpost linking the far-flung Roman empire's Asian boundaries to its central and northern European lands. Archeological digging at the site began around 1870 and by 2011 only 0.5 percent of the settlement was excavated.
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899 Dec 8
Arnulf of Carinthia, last emperor of Austria-France, died.
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962 Feb 2
Otto I (912-973), founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII.
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997
The name "Austria" first appeared in a medieval manuscript.
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1192 Dec 20
English King Richard I the Lionheart was captured in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. He was held in a castle above Durnstein, Austria, after disrespecting local Duke Leopold V. An entire year’s supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
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1192 Dec 20
Richard the Lionhearted was captured in Vienna.
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1235 Jan 2
Emperor Joseph II ordered the Jews of Galicia, Austria, to adopt family names.
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1267 May 10
Vienna's Catholic church ordered all Jews to wear distinctive garb.
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1295
Trieste became a Free Imperial City.
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1298 Jun 24
Rindfleish Persecutions: Jews of Ifhauben, Austria, were massacred.
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1298 Jul 2
An army under Albert of Austria defeated and killed Adolf of Nassua near Worms, Germany.
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1308 May 1
King Albert [of Austria] was murdered by his nephew John, because he refused his share of the Habsburg lands.
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1312
The Knights Templar were suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna.
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1315 Nov 15
Swiss soldiers ambushed and slaughtered invading Austrians in the battle of Morgarten.
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1335
Charles I of Hungary-Croatia, Casimir III of Poland and John of Bohemia met in Visegrad, Hungary, and agreed to create new commercial routes to bypass the staple port Vienna and obtain easier access to other European markets.
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1347
1350
The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
Links: Austria, Italy, Spain, Britain, France, Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Microbiology, Sicily, Crimea     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1365
The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV.
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1386
The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Sempach.
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1388
The counts of Habsburg tried to reach their goals by military force but were again defeated by Swiss forces at the battle of Naefels.
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1415 Sep 21
Frederick III, German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
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1421 May 11
Jews were expelled from Styria, Austria.
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1421 May 23
Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled.
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1429 Jan 10
Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
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1447
The winged altarpiece of Stephensdom in Vienna was completed. The cathedral also contains the tomb of Friedrich III.
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1477
Future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, a member of the Habsburg family of Austria, married Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all the Netherlands. Maximilian had given Mary a diamond engagement ring, a practice that soon spread. In 1996 Andrew Wheatcroft wrote a history of the Habsburgs: "The Habsburgs."
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1477
The Seventeen Provinces, a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, became the property of the Habsburgs. They roughly covered the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany.
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1490
Anne of Brittany married by proxy the recently widowed Maximilian of Hapsburg who had inherited Burgundy and Flanders from his first wife.
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1490
Linz became the capital of the province of Upper Austria.
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1493
The World Chronicle of Hartmann Schedel is held at the Library of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
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1493
The 600-page "World Chronicle" by physician Hartmann Schedel (1440-1513) was first published in Nuremburg. One copy is held at the Library of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Austria. Anton Koberger, a Nuremberg publisher, published 2,500 copies of the "Nuremberg Chronicle" by Hartmann Schedel. It included woodcuts by Michael Wohlgemuth and Wilhelm Pleyenwurff.
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1496 Mar 9
Jews were expelled from Carinthia, Austria.
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1498
Emperor Maximilian I relocated his court from Innsbruck to Vienna and brought along the court musicians. He also decided to include boy singers which gave rise to The Vienna Boys School and Choir. In 1918 the Austrian government took control of the court musicians, but not the boys choir, which became a private institution. The boys choir began to give public concerts in 1926. In 2007 the choir accepted its first African-born member, Jens Ibsen (12) of Daly City, Ca.
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1513 Jun 6
Battle at Novara: Habsburgers vs. Valois.
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1515 Jul 22
Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
Links: Austria, Czechoslovakia     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1516 Feb 23
The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
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1519 Jan 12
Maximilian I of Hapsburg (59), Holy Roman Emperor and German Kaiser, died.
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1519 Jul 6
Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona.
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1522 Feb 7
Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
Links: Austria, Belgium     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1523
Hans Judenkonig published in Vienna the first manual of lute playing.
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1525 Feb 24
In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy. This was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521-26.
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1526
Ferdinand of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian state.
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1527
Croatia formed a state union with Austria.
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1529 Oct 15
Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade.
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1538 Feb 24
Ferdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, concluded the peace of Grosswardein.
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1544 Sep 19
Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria signed a peace treaty in Crespy, France, ending a 20-year war. The Peace of Crespy ended the fighting between Char-les V and Francis I. Henry VIII was not consulted. France surrendered much territory and Charles gave up his claim to Burgundy.
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1556 Sep 9
Pope Paul IV refused to crown Ferdinand of Austria emperor.
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1556 Sep 12
Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over.
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1562
The Jesuits established a secondary school in Innsbruck. It later became the Univ. of Innsbruck.
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1562
Austrian Archduke Maximilian began breeding Spanish Andalusian horses.
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1568
The Spanish Riding School in Vienna began operating and became world famous for their Lipizzaners, white horses.
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1571 Sep 7
Spanish and Venetian ships of the Christian League in the naval Battle of Lep-anto in the Mediterranean Sea under Don John of Austria gained complete victory over a Turk-ish fleet with 117 Turkish ships sunk. [see Oct 7]
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1574
A provincial academy was founded in Linz.
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1576
Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
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1578
Don John of Austria died of fever. He was succeeded as Governor of the Netherlands by Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma.
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